Exam 3 Nutrition

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What is the function of Vitamin K

Blood clotting
Enables the bone protein osteocalcin to bind with calcium


Sources of Riboflavin(B2)

Milk, Yogurt, enriched cereal and grains


What disease will a Vitamin D Deficiency cause

Rickets in children, in adults Osteomalacia (adult equivalent of rickets)


What will a overuse of Vitamin D cause?



What was the first vitamin discovered?

Thiamin (B1)


What vitamin Breaks down Alcohol



What are sources of Thiamin

enriched and whole grain products, Pork


What is the disease caused by a Thiamin Deficiency



What can Chronic Alcohol Abuse lead to?

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome(damaging brain disorder)
Due to a thiamin deficient diet


What can a B12 deficiency cause?

Deficiency can cause macrocytic anemia (because folate can’t be utilized properly)
Lack of intrinsic factor causes pernicious anemia, involves nerve damage


What are the Fat Soluble Vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are absorbed with dietary fat and can be stored in body


What is the relationship to fat with Fat Soluble vitamins?

The fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K, are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed in excess than water-soluble vitamins. Eating a normal, well-balanced diet will not lead to toxicity in otherwise healthy individuals. However, taking vitamin supplements that contain megadoses of vitamins A, D, E and K may lead to toxicity. The body only needs small amounts of any vitamin.


Which vitamins and minerals are antioxidants

Vitamins A, C, and E, and beta-carotene are antioxidants,
Minerals: selenium


What are Beta Carotene sources

Carotenoids, including beta-carotene, are pigments which give color to carrots, cantaloupe, sweet potatoes, spinach, broccoli.


What is Vitamin Ds function as a hormone

Functions: active form acts as a hormone
Regulates two important bone minerals: calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P)
Stimulates intestinal absorption of Ca and P to maintain healthy blood levels and build and maintain bones
When dietary calcium is inadequate, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone cause calcium to leave bones to maintain necessary blood levels
May prevent type 2 diabetes and some cancers


What Vitamins are synthesized in your intestines



What does a Folic Acid Deficiency cause?

Too much folic acid (not naturally-occurring folate in foods) masks vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Folate deficiency can lead to macrocytic anemia


What are the functions of water in your body

Acts as universal solvent and a transport medium
Helps maintain body temperature
Is a lubricant for joints, eyes, and is part of mucus and saliva
Is a protective cushion for brain, organs, fetus


What is water balance

Water balance: water consumed = water lost


What is water loss

You lose water through your kidneys (as urine), large intestine, lungs, and skin (as sweat)
Insensible water loss: through evaporation from skin and when you exhale
Losing too much water can cause dehydration


Electrolytes are the mineral that help maintain fluid balance
Sodium and chloride are major electrolytes outside of cells and in blood to help maintain fluid balance



What are the functions of Calcium

Helps build strong bones and teeth
Plays a role in muscles, nerves, and blood
May help lower high blood pressure
May fight colon cancer
May reduce risk of kidney stone
May reduce risk of obesity


What is the most abundant mineral in your body



What are the differences in Heme and Non Heme iron

Heme iron from animal sources is part of hemoglobin and myoglobin and easily absorbed
Nonheme iron in plant foods is not as easily absorbed, due to phytates and other substances


What are the functions of Iodine

needed by thyroid to make essential hormones
Thyroid hormones regulate metabolic rate; help heart, nerves, muscle and intestines function properly


What can reduce copper absorption

Excess zinc


Difference between intracellular and extra cellular

Intracellular fluids: inside cells
Extracellular fluids: interstitial fluid between cells and fluid in the blood


What are the fluid requirements in men and women

Men: 16 cups/day (about 13 cups of beverages)
Women: 12 cups/day (about 9 cups of beverages)


How is iron absorbed

Body only absorbs 10 to 15 percent of iron consumed
Absorption increases if body stores are low
Iron not excreted in urine or stool, and once absorbed, very little leaves body (95 percent recycled and reused)


What happens if alcohol is consumed during pregnancy

Exposure to alcohol prenatally can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs)
Most severe form is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Causes physical, mental, and behavioral abnormalities
Effects of FASDs are permanent.
The only proven, safe amount of alcohol a pregnant woman can consume is none


How is alcohol absorbed and metabolized

You metabolize alcohol primarily in your liver: one standard drink is metabolized in 1½ to 2 hours
Alcohol is a toxin and the body works quickly to metabolize and eliminate it
You absorb alcohol in your stomach and small intestine
Food in your stomach slows down absorption


What is a good alcohol portion and how frequently should you absorb it

To be a moderate drinker, watch out for:
Size of your drinks
Standard drink contains ½ ounce of alcohol
Drinks served may often contain more
Frequency of your drinking
Abstaining from alcohol for several days and then overdrinking one day is not moderate drinking
Defined as binge drinking