Core Concepts in Pharmacology Lesson 6

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Core Concepts in Pharmacology
Chapters 16, 19, 21, 22
updated 8 years ago by angber61
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1

Describe the main differences between Class IA, IB, and IC sodium channel blockers in the treatment of dysrhythmias.

Class IA drugs work quickly and are eliminated quickly.

Class IB drugs are short-acting. They are usually reserved for ventricular dysrhythmias.

Class IC drugs stay in the body for a longer time period, so their period of effectiveness is longer(prolonged effects). These drugs are usually reserved for life-threatening ventricular dysrhythmias.

2

State the general mechanism of action of

Class I/sodium channel blockers

in the treatment of dysrhythmias.

These medications slow impulse conduction by blocking the sodium ion channels.

3

State the general mechanism of action of

Class II/beta blockers

in the treatment of dysrhythmias.

Beta blockers decrease blood pressure. They also slow heart rate, decrease conduction velocity and decrease ventricular function.

4

State the general mechanism of action of

Class III/potassium channel blockers

in the treatment of dysrhythmias.

These drugs block the potassium channels, reducing the ability of the heart to respond to tachycardias.

5

State the general mechanism of action of

Class IV/calcium channel blockers

in the treatment of dysrhythmias.

These drugs depress conduction velocity in dysrhythmias that must travel through the atriventricular node, which is calcium-dependant.

6

Identify the classes of meds appropriately used for the treatment of:

myocardial infarction

*Organic nitrates,Beta blockers: Reduce oxygen demand
*Calcium channel blockers: Increase oxygen supply
*Antidysrhythmics: Treat dysrhythmias that may occur
*Aspirin, etc: Decrease platelet aggregation
*Analgesics,Anxiolytics: Reduce pain and anxiety

7

Identify the classes of meds appropriately used for the treatment of:

angina pectoris

*Organic Nitrates
*Beta Blockers
*Calcium Channel Blockers

8

State the general mechanism of action for

organic nitrates

in the treatment of angina pectoris and/or myocardial infarction

Organic nitrates convert to nitric oxide in the body. Nitric oxide causes vasodilation of the coronary arteries, decreasing the preload, afterload, and demand for oxygen by the myocardial cells.

9

State the general mechanism of action for

beta blockers

in the treatment of angina pectoris and/or myocardial infarction

Beta blockers that have negative chronotropic and negative inotropic effects(that is,drugs that reduce heart rate and reducing the force of contractions) decrease the heart's demand for oxygen. This can prevent development of myocardial ischemia(deficiency of blood flow to tissue) and pain.

10

State the general mechanism of action for

calcium channel blockers

in the treatment of angina pectoris and/or myocardial infarction

Calcium channel blockers lower heart rate and force of contractions. They also decrease vascular tone and increase vasodilation. All of these factors reduce myocardial demand for oxygen.

11

When treating for shock, explain the purpose of administering:

fluids

Replacement of fluids(IV fluids, electrolytes, blood products)

12

When treating for shock, explain the purpose of administering:

vasoconstrictors
Example: epinephrine

to stabilize blood pressure and prevent hypotension

13

When treating for shock, explain the purpose of administering:

positive inotropic medications
Examples: Dopamine or Digoxin

to increase the force of myocardial contractions(to prevent heart failure)

14

When treating for ischemic stroke, explain the purpose of administering:

thrombolyics

to dissolve existing clot(s)

15

When treating for ischemic stroke, explain the purpose of administering:

tissue plasminogen activator

to open occluded arteries

16

When treating for ischemic stroke, explain the purpose of administering:

anticoagulants

to prevent future clot formation

17

When treating for hemorrhagic stroke, explain the purpose of administering:

hemostatics

to stop bleeding by increasing clotting activity

18

When treating for hemorrhagic stroke, explain the purpose of administering:

hyperosmotics

to decrease swelling of brain tissue

19

Name the categories of drugs that would appropriately be administered to counter each of the following when treating patients for either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke:

anxiety

Anxiolytics

20

Name the categories of drugs that would appropriately be administered to counter each of the following when treating patients for either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke:

hypertension

Antihypertensive agents

21

Name the categories of drugs that would appropriately be administered to counter each of the following when treating patients for either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke:

pain

Analgesics

22

When treating for anaphylaxis, explain the purpose of administering:

vasoconstrictors
Example: Epinephrine

to increase blood pressure and reverse vasodilation.

23

When treating for anaphylaxis, explain the purpose of administering:

antihistamines

to stop the histamine release

24

When treating for anaphylaxis, explain the purpose of administering:

bronchodilators

to combat bronchoconstriction

25

When treating for anaphylaxis, explain the purpose of administering:

corticosteroids

to decrease the inflammatory response

26

When treating for anaphylaxis, explain the purpose of administering:

oxygen

...

27

When treating for anaphylaxis, explain the purpose of administering:

fluids, electrolytes, blood products

...

28

Explain why low levels of LDL are desirable while high levels of HDL are desirable.

LDL:
*Bad cholesterol
*Carried on low density lipoproteins
*Contain greatest amount of cholesterol
*WANT THIS NUMBER TO BE LOW
HDL:
*Good cholesterol
*Carried on high density lipoproteins
*Returns cholesterol to the liver
*WANT THIS NUMBER TO BE HIGH

29

Describe the advantage of each of these combination medications in the treatment of hyperlipidemia:

Caduet

Caduet combines an antihyperlipidemic(atorvastatin) with an antihypertensive agent(amlodipine). Since many people with hyperlipidemia also have hypertension, the rationale behind Caduet is that compliance may be more likely if patients only have to take one pill.

30

Describe the advantage of each of these combination medications in the treatment of hyperlipidemia:

Vytorin

Vytorin combines ezetimibe(inhibits cholesterol absorption) and simbastin(slows production of cholesterol to the liver. The rationale is to attack the cholesterol from two different angles.

31

Describe the advantage of each of these combination medications in the treatment of hyperlipidemia:

Advicor

Advicor combines lovastatin(slows production of cholesterol in the liver) and niacin(decreases liver triglycerol synthesis). The rationale is to attack the cholesterol from two different angels.

32

Identify the drug category that is considered the drug of choice for treating hyperlipidemia, and describe its mechanism of action.

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors(better known as statins)-these drugs slow production of cholesterol in the liver.

33

For each of the drugs, state the drug class:

nitroglycerin

Organic nitrates

34

For each of the drugs, state the drug class:

Caduet, Vytorin, Advicor

Combination drugs

35

For each of the drugs, state the drug class:

epinephrine

Vasoconstrictors