Chemistry The Central Science 12th Edition: Chemistry 1A Final Review Flashcards


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Chemistry Basics, SI Units, Prefixes, Common ions gases, acids/bases, oxidation, reduction, pH Orbitals
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1

chemistry

the study of the composition, structure, properties, and changes of matter

2

property

any characteristic that gives a sample of matter its unique identity

3

element

a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means; composed of only one type of atom

4

atom

the smallest representative particle of an element

5

molecule

an entity composed of two or more atoms with the atoms attached to one another in a specific way

6

mass

a measure of the amount of material in an object

7

states of matter

gas, liquid, and solid

8

gas

has no fixed volume or shape; conforms to the volume and shape of its container; molecules are far apart and move at high speeds

9

liquid

has a distinct volume independent of its container but had no specific shape; assumes the shape of the portion of the container it occupies; molecules are packed more closely together but move rapidly and slide

10

solid

has a definite shape and volume; molecules are held tightly together in definite arrangements and wiggle slightly

11

pure substance

matter that has distinct properties and a composition that doesn't vary from sample to sample (elements and compounds)

12

compound

a substance composed of two or more elements

13

mixture

a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity

14

components

the substances that make up a mixture

15

homogeneous mixture (solution)

a mixture that is uniform throughout ( a solution)

16

heterogeneous mixture

a mixture that does not have the same composition, properties, and appearance throughout

17

law of constant composition (law of definite proportions)

the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same

18

physical properties

can be measured without changing the identity and composition of the substance (color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, hardness)

19

chemical properties

describe the way a substance may change, or react, to form other substances

20

physical change

matter does not change its composition (ex. changes of states)

21

chemical change (chemical reaction)

a substance is transformed into a chemically different substance

22

intensive properties

are independent of the amount of matter examined; are used to identify substances

23

extensive properties

relate to the amount of substance present

24

scientific method

a dynamic process used to answer questions about our physical world

25

scientific laws

general rules that summarize how nature behaves

26

hypothesis

a tentative explanation that guides in planning further experiments

27

theory

an explanation of the general causes of certain phenomena, with considerable evidence or facts to support it

28

quantitative analysis

the determination of the amount of a given substance that is present in a sample

29

qualitative analysis

the determination of the presence or absence of a particular substance in a mixture

30

metric system

metric units are used for scientific measurements

31

SI units

preferred units used in scientific measurement (length=meter (m), mass=kilogram (kg), time=second (s), temperature=Kelvin (K))

32

temperature

the measure of the hotness or coldness of an object; determines the direction of heat flow

33

Celsius scale

the everyday temperature scale of most countries

34

Kelvin scale

the SI temperature scale

35

Kelvin <--> Celsius

K = C + 273.15

36

Celsius --> Fahrenheit

F = (9/5)C + 32

37

Fahrenheit --> Celsius

C = (5/9)(F - 32)

38

precision

indicates how closely different measurements of a quantity agree with one another

39

accuracy

indicates how well a measurement agrees with the accepted or "true" value

40

significant figures

in a measured quantity, they include one estimated digit (the last digit of the measurement)

41

dimensional analysis

an approach to problem solving in which we keep track of units as we carry measurements through calculations

42

conversion factor

a fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quantity expressed in different units

43

length (l)

meters (m)

44

mass (m)

grams (g)

45

time (t)

seconds (s)

46

temperature (T)

Kelvin (K)

47

amount of substance (n)

mole (mol)

48

Giga-

10^9, G

49

Mega-

10^6, M

50

Kilo-

10^3, k

51

Hecto-

10^2, h

52

Deka-

10^1, da

53

Deci-

10^-1, d

54

Centi-

10^-2, c

55

Milli-

10^-3, m

56

Micro-

10^-6, µ

57

Nano-

10^-9, n

58

Area

square meter, length x width

59

Volume

cubic meter, length x width x height

60

Speed, Velocity

meter per second, length / time

61

Wave number

1 per meter, number / length

62

Density

kilogram per cubic meter, mass / volume

63

Force

newton, length x mass / time x time

64

Pressure

pascal, force / area

65

Energy

joule, force x length

66

Cation

ion with positive charge

67

Anion

ion with negative charge

68

Aluminum

Al^3+

69

Ammonium

NH4^+

70

Arsenic (III)

As^3+

71

Arsenic (V)

As^5+

72

Barium

Ba^2+

73

Bismuth (III)

Bi^3+

74

Bismuth (V)

Bi^5+

75

Cadmium

Cd^2+

76

Calcium

Ca^2+

77

Chromium (III)

Cr^3+

78

Chromium (III)

Cr^3+

79

Cobalt (II)

Co^2+

80

Cobalt (III)

Co^3+

81

Copper (I)

Cu^+, Cuprous

82

Copper (II)

Cu^2+, Cupric

83

Hydrogen

H^+

84

Hydronium

H3O+

85

Iron (II)

Fe^2+, Ferrous

86

Iron (III)

Fe^3+, Ferric

87

Lead (II)

Pb^2+, Plumbous

88

Lead (III)

Pb^3+, Plumbic

89

Lithium

Li+

90

Magnesium

Mg^2+

91

Manganese (II)

Mn^2+

92

Manganese (IV)

Mn^4+

93

Mercury (I)

Hg2^2+, Mercurous

94

Mercury (II)

Hg^2+, Mercuric

95

Nickel (II)

Ni^2+

96

Potassium

K^+

97

Silver

Ag^+

98

Sodium

Na^+

99

Strontium

Sr^2+

100

Tin (II)

Sn^2+, Stannous

101

Tin (IV)

Sn^4+, Stannic

102

Zinc

Zn^2+

103

Bromide

Br^-

104

Bromate (I)

BrO^-, Hypobromite

105

Bromate (III)

BrO2^-, Bromite

106

Bromate (V)

BrO3^-, Bromate

107

Bromate (VII)

BrO4^-, Perbromate

108

Carbonate

CO3^2-

109

Chlorate (I)

ClO-, Hypochlorite

110

Chlorate (III)

ClO2^-, Chlorite

111

Chlorate (V)

ClO3^-, Chlorate

112

Chlorate (VII)

ClO4^-, Perchlorate

113

Chloride

Cl^-

114

Chromate

CrO4^2-

115

Cyanide

CN^-

116

Dichromate

Cr2O7^2-

117

Dihydrogen Phosphate

H2PO4^-

118

Ethanoate

C2H3O2^-, Acetate

119

Fluoride

F^-

120

Hydride

H^-

121

Hydrogen Carbonate

HCO3^-, Bicarbonate

122

Hydrogen Oxalate

HC2O4^-, Binoxalate

123

Hydrogen Phosphate

HPO4^2-

124

Hydrogen Sulfate

HSO4^-, Bisulfate

125

Hydrogen Sulfide

HS^-, Bisulfide

126

Hydrogen Sulfite

HSO3^-, Bisulfite

127

Hydroxide

OH^-

128

Iodate (I)

IO^-, Hypoiodite

129

Iodate (III)

IO2^-, Iodite

130

Iodate (V)

IO3^-, Iodate

131

Iodate (VII)

IO4^-, Periodate

132

Iodide

I^-

133

Manganate (VII)

MnO4^-, Permangeate

134

Nitrate

NO3^-

135

Nitride

N^3-

136

Oxalate

C2O4^2-, Ethandioate

137

Oxide

O^2-

138

Peroxide

O2^2-

139

Phosphate

PO4^3-

140

Sulfate

SO4^2-

141

Sulfide

S^2-

142

Sulfite

SO3^2-

143

Thiosulfate

S2O3^2-

144

Thiocyanate

SCN^-

145

(Polyatomic Ions) +2

Hg2^2+

146

(Polyatomic Ions) +1

NH4^+

147

(Polyatomic Ions) -1

BrO^-, BrO2^-, BrO3^-, BrO4^-, C2H3O2^-, ClO^-, ClO2^-, ClO3^-, ClO4^-, CN^-, HCO3^-, HC3O4^-, H2PO4^-, HS^-, HSO3^-, HSO4^-, IO^-, IO3^-, IO4^-, MnO4^-, NO2^-, NO3^-, OH^-, SCN^-

148

(Polyatomic Ions) -2

CO3^2-, C2O4^2-, CrO4^2-, Cr2O7^2-, HPO4^2-, SO3^2-, SO4^2-, S2O3^2-

149

(Polyatomic Ions) -3

PO3^3-, PO3^3-

150

Density

mass/volume

151

q

m*c*deltaT

152

q

heat

153

delt T

temperature change

154

m

mass

155

c

specific heat

156

delta G

delta H - T*deltaS

157

delta G<zero

reaction is spondtaneuous at this temperature

158

delta G>zero

+delta H, low temperature

159

delta G>zero

-delta S, high temperature

160

Delta G>zero

-delta H, + delta S, any temperature

161

Delta G<0

-delta H, +delta S, any temperature

162

Delta G<0

+delta S, High Temperature

163

Delta H>0

endothermic

164

delta H<0

exothermic

165

delta T

kmi

166

kmi?

Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Depression

167

i

whole number equaling the number of particles a substance dissolves into

168

k

solvent constant

169

m

molality (NOT molarity)

170

molarity

moles solute/volume of solution

171

molality

moles solute/kilograms of solvent

172

mole fraction

moles solute/total of solution

173

PV

nRT

174

P

pressure in atm

175

V

volume in liters

176

n

number of moles of gas particles in the container

177

R

the ideal gas constant

178

T

temperature in Kelvin

179

R

0.08 Latm/mole K

180

1 amt

760 torr (760 mm Hg)

181

Energy (heat): 1 Calorie

1000 calories (4000 joules)

182

0 Celsius

273 kelvin

183

to find the mass of a mole of a substance

multiply the formula weight by the number of moles

184

1 mole of gas at STP

22.4 L volume

185

All alkalie and ammonium compounds are

soluble

186

All acetates, chlorate, nitrates, and perchlorates are

soluble

187

Pb, Hg, and Ag salts are insoluble unless

they are paired with one of the anions which are soluble

188

When oxygen is in a compound, its oxidation state is usually ___, with the exception of oxygen in a _____ which has a oxidation state of _____

-2, peroxide, -1

189

When an alkali metal is involved in a compound its oxidation state is always

+1

190

When an alkaline earth metal is involved in a compound, its oxidation state is

+2

191

When a halogen is involved in a compound its oxidation state is often

-1,

192

the oxidation state of fluorine in a compound is

-1

193

When hydrogen is combined with a nonmetal, it's oxidation state is

+1

194

When hydrogen is combined with a metal, it's oxidation state is

-1

195

In any compound the sum of all oxidation states

0

196

Avogadro's number

6.02 x 10^23 molecules/moles

197

OIL

Oxidation is Losing Electrons

198

Oxidation is

losing electrons

199

RIG

reduction is gaining electrons

200

Reduction is

gaining electrons

201

AN OX

Oxidation occurs at Anode

202

Red Cat

reduction occurs at the Cathode

203

Ecell>0

reaction is spontaneous and energy is released (battery)

204

E<0

reaction is NOT spondtaneous and required a voltage source (electron plating)

205

keq

[products]/[reactants]

206

keq

[C]^c[D]^d/[A]^a[B]^b

207

keq>1

products favored

208

keq<1

reactants favored

209

Ionization energy increases

upper right

210

Electronegativity increases

upper right

211

Atomic radius increases

lower left

212

Electron Affinity increases

upper right

213

Acidity increases

lower right

214

pH

pKa+log[A]/[HA]

215

pH

-log10[H+]

216

pH>7

Basic

217

pH<7

Acidic

218

pH=7

Neutral

219

Strong Acids

HCl, HI, H2SO4, HBR, HClO4, HNO3

220

Strong Bases

All Group I Hydroxides

221

n = 1, ℓ = 0 , mℓ = 0

1s

222

n = 2, ℓ = 1, mℓ = 1

2px

223

n = 2, ℓ = 1, mℓ = 0

2pz

224

n = 2, ℓ = 1, mℓ = -1

2py

225

n = 3, ℓ = 2, mℓ = 2

3dx²-y²

226

n = 3, ℓ = 2, mℓ = 1

3dxz

227

n = 3, ℓ = 2, mℓ = 0

3dz²-x²-y²

228

n = 3, ℓ = 2, mℓ = -1

3dyz

229

n = 3, ℓ = 2, mℓ = -2

3dxy

230

Radio Waves

electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies, for radio and television communications

231

Microwaves

for microwave ovens, cell phones, and radar

232

Infrared Waves

3rd longest wave, can be felt as heat, used in heat lamps, electrical appliances, remote controllers for televisions and intruder alarms

233

Visible Light

Electromagnetic waves that can be seen with the unaided eye, ROYGBIV

234

ROYGBIV

Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet

235

Ultraviolet Rays

invisible rays of the spectrum lying outside the violet end of the visible spectrum, can cause skin cancer and sunburns, for medicine and security

236

X-Ray wave

image created by sending electromagnetic radiation through body parts, solid parts appear white, can penetrate almost all matter, can lead to cancer

237

Gamma Rays

Electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies, can be used to kill cancer cells in the body

238

Electromagnetic Wave

a wave that can travel through space or matter and consists of changing electric and magnetic energy

239

Electromagnetic Radiation

energy that travels through space in the form of waves

240

wave

disturbance that transfers energy from place to place

241

Electromagnetic Spectrum

complete range of electromagnetic waves In order of increased frequencies, are all light waves

242

energy

Is the ability to do work

243

medium

Material through which a wave travels.

244

vibration

A repeated back-and-forth or up-and-down motion

245

crest

Highest point of a wave

246

trough

Lowest point of a wave

247

amplitude

maximum distance that the particles of the medium carrying the wave move away from their rest position

248

wave length

The distance between crest to the next crest of a wave

249

frequency

How many waves can pass a given point in a certain amount of time

250

hertz

Frequency is measured in

251

Transparent materials

Allow all light to pass through

252

Translucent material

scatters light as it passes through

253

Opaque materials

allows no light to come through

254

Primary colors

Three colors that can combine to make any other color(red, blue, green)

255

secondary colors

2 primary colors combine in equal amounts

256

complementary colors

any two colors that combine to form white light

257

pigments

colored substances that are used to color other substances

258

reflection

when a object or wave bounces back off a surface though which it cannot pass

259

concave mirror

A mirror with a surface that curves inward

260

convex mirror

A mirror with a surface that curves outward

261

refraction

bending of light waves due to a change in speed

262

lens

A piece of transparent and curved material that refracts light.

263

convex lens

thicker in the center than the edges

264

concave lens

thinner in the center than the edges

265

camera

An optical instrument that uses 1 or more lenses to focus light, and film to record an image of an object.

266

telescope

An optical instrument for making distant objects appear nearer and larger by using a combination of lens and mirrors

267

microscope

An optical instrument for magnifying very small objects by using a combination of lenses

268

Refracting and Reflecting

two types of telescopes

269

Light/compound and electron

2 types of microscopes