Sociology

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created 6 years ago by cielia
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chapters 4, 5, and 6 definitions and sociologists from the book and slides
updated 6 years ago by cielia
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1

socialization

the process of learning to participate in group life through the acquisition of culture

2

personality

the relatively organized complex of attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors associated with the individual

3

self concept

an image of oneself as an entity separate from other people- that still stand today

4

cooling-glass self

a self concept based on our perception of others' judgements on us

5

significant others

those who judgments are most important to our self-concept care called _____. For a child their ___ are likely to include their mother, father, and for spouses it would include the other other spouse

6

role taking

the process that allows us to take the view point of another individual and then respond to ourselves from that imagined viewpoint

7

imitation stage

the stage that begins around age one and a half to two years old, the child imitates (without understanding) the physical and verbal behavior of a significant other

8

play stage

the stage during which children take on roles of others one at a time

9

game stage

the stage in which children learn to engage in more sophisticated role taking

10

generalized others

an integrated conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of one's community or society -emerges.

11

"me"

is the part of the self formed through socialization

12

"I"

to account for this spontaneous and unpredictable part of the self, mead wrote of another dimension of the self

13

total institutions

places in which residents are separated from the rest of society

14

desocialization

the process of relinquishing old norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors

15

resocialization

the process of learning to adopt new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors- can begin

16

anticipatory socialization

the process of preparing for learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors- does not generally occur in the extreme social settings represented by total institutions

17

reference group

a group used to evaluate oneself and from which to acquire attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms

18

hidden curriculum

the subterranean informal and unofficial aspects of culture that children are taught as preparation for life int eh larger society

19

peer group

composed of individuals roughly the same age with similar interests- is the only agent of socialization that is not controlled primarily by adults

20

mass media

are means of communication designed to reach the general population, and sociologists agree they are a powerful socializing agency

21

continuity theory

most aging people maintain consistency with their past lives and use their life experiences in intentionally continue developing in self-determined channels

22

hospices

organizations that provide support fro the dying and their families -appear to be better prepared fro death in part because they can share their feelings with others who are dyings

23

social class

refers to a segment of population whose members have a relatively similar share of society's desirable goods and who share attitudes, values, norms, and an identifiable lifestyle

24

cyber bullying

is bullying through electronic media such as e-mail instant messaging, chat rooms, web sites, and cellular phones

25

ideology

the set of ideas to justify and and defend their interests and actions of those in power in a society

26

power elite

a unified coalition of top military, corporate, and government leaders

27

chp 5
social structure

the underlying pattern of social relationships

28

status

people may refer to themselves as students, doctors, welders, secretaries, mothers or sons; each other these labels refer to as ___________

29

ascribed status

is neither earned or chosen; is assigned to us
ie: at birth we are male or female

30

achieved status

is earned or chosen because people have some degree of control and choice.

31

status set

is all the statuses that an individual occupies at any particular time

32

master statuses

are important because they influence most other aspects of a person's life; master statuses may be achieved or ascribed

33

roles

are the culturally defined rights and obligations attached to a status; they indicate the behavior expected of an individual holding that particular status

34

rights

inform individuals of behavior they can expect from others

35

obligation

inform individuals of the behavior others expect from them

36

role performance

is the actual conduct or behavior, activating a role

37

social interaction

is the process of two or more persons influencing each others behavior

38

role conflict

occurs when the performance of a role in one status clashes with that in another status

39

role strain

occurs when some of the roles of a single status clash

40

society

is composed of a people living within defined territorial borders, sharing a common culture

41

hunting and gathering society

survives by hunting animals and gathering edible foods such as wild fruits and vegetables

42

horticultural societies

solved subsistence problem primarily through the domestication of plants

43

pastoral societies

food is obtained primarily by raising and caring for domesticated animals

44

agricultural society

the transition from ______ to ______ was made possible largely through the invention of the plow

45

industrial society

a society whose subsistence is based primarily on application of science and technology to the production of goods and services

46

structural differentiation

occurs when a single social structure divides into tow or more social structures

47

gemeinschaft
gesellschaft

german for community
german for society

48

mechanical solidarity

in societies where division of labor is simple- in which most people are doing the same type of work

49

organic solidarity

it achieves social unity through a complex of specialized statuses that forces interdependence among members of society

50

folk society

rests on tradition, cultural and social consensus, family, personal ties, little division of labor, and an emphasis on the sacred

51

postindustrial society

the ________ economic base is grounded more in service industries than in manufacturing industries and relies on expertise in production, consumption and government

52

convergence

advocates of the pattern of ____ foresee the development of social and cultural similarity among modernizing nations

53

global culture

a homogenized way of life spread across the globe

54

divergence

do not see social and cultural homogeneity as an inevitable result of modernization; they don envision the emergence of a global culture

55

globalization

is the process by which increasingly permeable geographical boundaries lead different societies to share in common some economic, political, and social arrangements

56

world system theory

the pattern of a nations development hinges on its place in the world economy

57

chp 6
group

is composed of people who are in contact with one another; share some ways of thinking, feeling and behaving; take one anothers behavior into account; and have one or more interest in common

58

social category

people who share a social characteristic

59

social aggregate

people who happen to b all at the same place at the same time;

60

primary group

is composed of people who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one anothers company

61

primary relationships

a number of conditions develop in primary groups or ______

62

secondary group

exists to accomplish a specific purpose

63

secondary relationships

impersonal interactions involving only limited parts of their personality

64

reference groups

we use certain groups to evaluate ourselves and to acquire attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms

65

in-group

encourages intense identification and loyalty. the level of identification and loyalty is sufficient and compelling that members tend to exclude others

66

out-groups

is a group toward ____ members feel opposition and competition. it is from membership in these groups that people divide into "we" and"they"

67

social network

a web of social relationships that joins a person to another person to other people and groups

68

cooperation

is a form of interaction in which individuals or groups combine their efforts to reach some common goal

69

conflict

those who work against one another for a larger share of the rewards are in conflict

70

coercion

an individual or a group compels others to behave in certain ways

71

conformity

is behavior matching group expectations

72

bureaucracies

formal organizations based on rationality and efficiency

73

formal organizations

is deliberately created achieve one or more goals

74

power

is to the ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will

75

authority

is the exercise of legitimate power- power that produces compliance because those subjected to its believe that obedience is tgoalhe proper response

76

ideal-type method

this method isolates, to the point of exaggeration, the most basic characteristics of some social entity

77

rationalism

the solution of problems of the basis of logic, data, and planning rather than tradition and superstition -was on the rise and the characteristics of bureaucracy were consistent with this sweeping trend

78

goal displacement

when organizational rules and regulations become more important than organizational goals

79

trained incapacity

exists when previous training prevents someone from adapting to new situations

80

organic adaptive systems

organizations based on rapid response to change rather than on the continuing implementation of established administrative principles

81

informal organization

a group guided by unofficial norms, rituals, and sentiments that are not part of the formal organization

82

iron law of oligarchy

power tends to become increasingly concentrated in the hands of a few members of any organization

83

sexual harassment

the use of ones superior power in making unwelcome sexual advances

84

organizational environment

consists of all the forces outside an organization that exert an actual or potential influence on the organizations

85

interorganizational relationship

is pattern of interaction among authorized representatives of two or more formally independent organizations

86

Elizabeth Kubler Ross

-first popularized research on death and dying
-used positivism with patients

87

M. Scott Peck

-Psychiatrist
-Anyone ready to make a significant growth step can benefit from these steps
-Is the glass half empty or half full?

88

5 stages

denial
anger
bargaining
depression
acceptance

89

cooly- looking glass self

Self concept is based on how you feel other people perceive you.

Are you the class clown? What do you do to contribute to this image?
Example: Prom dress

90

mead- role taking

Two parts of the self- the I and the Me
Imitation stage
Generalized others
Significant others

91

Freud- ID, EGO, SUPEREGO

Window of development
-the pleasure principle
Living for me, myself, and I
-the parent that lives and nags inside
-the great mediator
Example – chocolate cake

92

Erikson- Psychosocial

Student of Freud
Side by side the psycho-sexual stages of dev. Are psycho-social stages
Socialization/growth takes place throughout the entire life cycle
For every crisis there is both a positive and a negative

93

Piaget- Cognitive Development

Saw children as detectives/scientists
Sensorimotor stage
Preoperational
Concrete operational
Formal operational

94

4 Key Social Structures

Groups
Formal Organizations
Social Institutions
Societies

95

Formal Organizations

Formal Organization is deliberately created to achieve one or more goals
Research by Etzioni, Blau and Scott
Etzioni classified by type- 3 types
Voluntary( Normative Organization)
Coercive
Utilitarian
Blau and Scott looked at who benefits from them

96

Social Institutions

We have mentioned this content earlier when we were talking about the Functional Theoretical Perspective
Religion, Family, Education, etc…

97

Societies

Trace the societies known to man kind
PRE-INDUSTRIAL
Hunter and Gathers
Horticultural-domestication of plants
Pastoral Societies- domestication of animals
Agricultural- invention of the plow

98

Durkheim

Mechanical solidarity- social unity
Organic Solidarity- specialized statuses that interdependent
Ex. Favorite breakfast
(Back Yard vs. IHOP)

99

Robert Redfield

Folk Society- tradition is key
Urban Society- relationship are impersonal and contractual

100

5 types of Social Interaction Groups

Cooperation
Conflict
Social Exchange
Coercion
Conformity