Unit 3: Macromolecules Flashcards


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created 9 years ago by hstiles
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Simple and Complex Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Enzymes, Nucleic Acids
updated 3 weeks ago by hstiles
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9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade
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biology
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1

Monomer

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A single molecule which can be bonded together to other monomers to form larger molecules - polymers.

Carbohydrates' monomer is monosaccharides
Proteins' monomer is amino acids
Nucleic Acids monomer is nucleotides

2

Polymer

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A larger molecule made by bonding of individual molecules (monomers)

3

Dehydration synthesis

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Reaction that forms a covalent bond formed between 2 molecules by the removing a molecule of water.

4

Hydrolysis

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Reaction that breaks covalent bonds by adding a molecule of water.

5

Macromolecules

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Large molecules made up of smaller organic molecules.

4 Types found in all living things:

1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Lipids
4. Nucleic Acids

6

Carbohydrates

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One of the 4 major classes of large organic molecules which provides energy for the cell.
Made from Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen.
Sugars and Starches.
Made up of monosaccharides.

7

Monosaccharide

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1 molecule of sugar. The monomer or building block of the polymer carbohydrate. A type of simple carbohydrate.

8

Disaccharide

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2 molecules of sugar bonded together. A type of simple carbohydrate.

9

Polysaccharide

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Many sugars bonded together. Also known as complex carbohydrates.

10

Simple Carbohydrate

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Carbohydrates with only 1 (monosaccharide) or 2 (disaccharide) sugar molecules.

11

Complex Carbohydrate

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Carbohydrates with with 3 or more sugar molecules bonded together (polysaccharide).

12

Glycogen

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A complex, highly branched polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) that is formed from glucose subunits
Found in animals
Used for energy storage.

13

Starch

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A complex polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) that is formed from glucose subunits.
Found in plants.
Used for energy storage.

14

Cellulose

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An unbranched polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) formed from glucose subunits.
Found in plant cell walls.
Used for structural support.

15

Lipids

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One of the 4 major classes of large organic molecules. Usually made up of fatty acid chains and glycerol.

4 Types:
fats and oils - long term energy
phospholipids - cell membrane
steroids - chemical messengers throughout the body
waxes - waterproofing.

16

Saturated Fats

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Fatty acid chains with single bonds between each carbon atom. Solid at room temperature.

17

Unsaturated Fats

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Fatty acid chain that contains double bonds between some carbon atoms which cause a bent shape in chain. Liquid at room temperature.

18

Phospholipid

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Type of lipid that makes up cell membranes. Has a polar hydrophilic phosphate head and 2 nonpolar hydrophobic fatty acid chains.

19

Hydrophobic

Water hating; not soluble (does not dissolve) in water because it is not polar.

20

Hydrophilic

Water loving; soluble (dissolves) in water because it is polar.

21

Steroids

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Type of lipid that is used as messengers throughout the body. Cholesterol and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) are examples.

22

Waxes

Type of lipid that has nonpolar chains. Forms a protective waterproof coating.

23

Proteins

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One of the 4 major classes of large organic molecules. Made up of amino acids.

Various functions: stucture and support, enzymes, transport

24

Amino Acid

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Monomers or building block of proteins. There are 23 different amino acids.

25
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Parts of an Amino Acid

Building blocks of proteins

1. Amino group
2. Carboxyl group
3. R group - different for each type of amino acid; gives the amino acid its unique characteristics.

26

Polypeptide

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Many amino acids bonded together in a chain.

27

Peptide bond

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Type of bond between amino acids to form polypeptide. Formed from dehydration reaction.

28

Catalyst

A substance present during a chemical reaction that speeds up the reaction but it not used up or changed during the reaction. An enzyme is a catalyst.

29

Enzyme

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A protein that is a catalyst for chemical reactions in organisms; it increases the rate of reaction without being used up or changed.

30

Substrate

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A molecule on which an enzyme acts. Fits into the active site of the enzyme.

31

Active Site

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The place on an enzyme where the substrate attaches and where the reaction occurs. It fits the substrate like a lock and key.

32

Activation Energy

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The amount of energy needed to be input so a reaction can occur. Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy.

33

Conditions that affect enzyme activity

1. Temperature - enzyme activity goes up until the protein denatures (loses shape)
2. pH - enzymes have an optimum pH that it works at, some need acidic environment, so need alkaline environment
3. Substrate Concentration - rate of reaction increases as substrate concentration increases until saturation point (where all enzymes are bonded with a substrate)
4. Coenzyme/Cofactors - these to activate some enzymes.

34

Reaction Rate

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How fast or slow a reaction takes.

Enzymes speed up rate of reactions, but is affected by several factors such as:
temperature, pH, concentration of substrate or enzyme

35

Concentration

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The amount of a particular substance in another substance.

With enzymes, the rate of reaction will increase with increased concentration (amount) of substrate or enzymes.

36

Nucleic Acids

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One of the 4 major classes of large organic molecules which is the genetic material of living things. Stores and transmits the information necessary for the processes of life. Made up of nucleotides bonded together.

37

DNA

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The nucleic acid that is the genetic information found in every cell. Contains instructions to build proteins.
Shaped in double helix structure.

Monomer: nucleotides

38

RNA

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The nucleic acid that uses the instructions stored in DNA to build proteins.
Usually single stranded
3 Types: mRNA, rRNA and tRNA

Monomer: nucleotides

39

Nucleotides

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The monomer of nucleic acids.

40

Three parts of a Nucleotide

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A nucleotide is made up of:

  • phosphate group
  • 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA)
  • nitrogen base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, uracil)