Holt World History: Chapter 14 Vocabulary The High Middle Ages Flashcards


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1

Seljuq Turks

a Muslim people from Central Asia that gained contorl of Palestine

2

Urban II

Pope to organized the first Crusaders in Clermont stating "God wills it, God wills it, God wills it!"

3

Crusades

a series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land

4

Saladin

Muslim leader who gained control of Jerusalem setting off the Third Crusade

5

Children's Crusade

Young people deciding to march to the Holy Land and regain it for Christian Europe and many were carried off into slavery

6

barter economy

goods and services exchanged for other goods and services without using money

7

domestic system

manufacturing took place in workers' home rather than in a shop or factory

8

usury

charging of interest on loans

9

capital

wealth that is earned, saved, and invested to make profits

10

market economy

land, labor, and capital are controlled by individual persons

11

merchant guild

association of merchants and workers created to protect their rights to trade and to help out members and their families

12

craft guild

associations of skilled workers that set standards for working conditions

13

apprentice

one who learns a skills under a master

14

journeyman

skilled worker who was paid wages by a master

15

middle class

class of skilled workers between the upper class and the poor and unskilled workers

16

Black Death

a terrible plague that swept through Europe possibly killing 25 million people

17

troubadours

traveling singers who entertained people during the Middle Ages

18

scholasticism

Medieval philosophy attempting to bring together faith and reason

19

Dante Alighieri

wrote "The Divine Comedy"

20

Geoffrey Chaucer

wrote "The Canterbury Tales"

21

Peter Abelard

medieval philosopher of scholasticism who wrote "Sic et Non" questing the church's teachings

22

Thomas Aquinas

a Dominican monk who wrote "Summa Theologiae" that summarized medieval Christian thought

23

Gothic

style of church architecture characterized by tall spires and flying buttresses that was developed by master builders during the mid-1100s

24

Hundred Years' War

series of conflicts between France and England from 1337-1453

25

War of the Roses

war between the York and Lancaster families for England's throne

26

Henry Tudor

defeated King Richard III of York in the War of the Roses to set up a strong monarchy in England again

27

Joan of Arc

the "Maid of Orleans" who left home to aid Charles VII against the English and was burned at the stake by English troops

28

Louis XI

united France and seized the lands of the House of Burgundy

29

Ferdinand

United Spain in 1479 with his wife

30

Isabella

United Spain in 1479 with her husband

31

Habsburg

became the most powerful family in Europe but couldn't unite the Holy Roman Empire

32

Babylonian Captivity

The years that the popes lived in Avignon named for the time the ancient Hebrews were forced to live in Babylon

33

Great Schism

period in church history with multiple popes supported by opposing groups

34

John Wycliffe

priest and teacher at Oxford University and attacked the wealth and immorality of some of the clergy; promoted the first translation of the Bible into English from Latin

35

Jan Hus

a religious reformer and teacher at the University of Prague; declared a heretic and burned at the stake