Section 3 cardiovascular

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Annabelle
345 views
book cover
Sonography
No Chapter
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1
card image
card image
2
card image
card image
3
card image
card image
4
card image
card image
5
card image
card image
6
card image
card image
7
card image
card image
8
card image
card image
9
card image
card image
10
card image
card image
11
card image
card image
12
card image
card image
13
card image
card image
14
card image
card image
15
card image
card image
16
card image
card image
17
card image
card image
18
card image
card image
19
card image
card image
20
card image
card image
21
card image
card image
22
card image
card image
23
card image
card image
24
card image
card image
25
card image
card image
26
card image
card image
27
card image
card image
28
card image
card image
29
card image
card image
30
card image
card image
31
card image
card image
32
card image
card image
33
card image
card image
34
card image
card image
35
card image
card image
36
card image
card image
37
card image
card image
38

transport system pump

heart

39

What is the function of the heart?

pump blood
-supply nurtients
-get rid of waste

40

What is the size of the heart

about the size of fist

Approximately 250 - 300 g

dependent on a person's age, wieght, and sex

41

What lies between the heart and the sternum?

card image

Thymus

42

Where is the base of the heart directed toward?

card image

the right shoulder

43

Where is the apex of the heart directed toward?

card image

the left hip

44

Where does the apex rest?

card image

on the diaphragm between the 5th and 6th rib

45

The inferior portion of the heart is almost entirly made up of what?

Right ventricle

46

What it the anterior portion of the heart composed of?

mostly right ventricle
small portion of right atrium and left ventricle

47

What makes up the right border of the heart?

card image

right atrium

48

What makes up the left border of the heart?

card image

left ventricle along with a small portion of the left atrium

49

What is the heart's double-walled fiberous sac called

pericardium

50

Where is the pericardial space?

in between pericadium layers

51

What is the purpose of the pericardium

creates a friction free enviroment with the serous fluid that acts as lubricant

52

Epicardium

outside layer of the heart - smooth thin layer

53

Myocardium

card image

middle muscle layer - bulky

containing spiral and circular muscle

54

endocardium

inside layer

glistening white sheet that covers the valves

55

where does the blood flow from the SVC & IVC?

card image

Right atria

56

What are the receiving chambers of the heart?

Atria

57

What are the 2 inferior chambers of the heart

ventricles

58

Which walls are thicker the atrium or ventricle walls?

ventricle walls

59

trabeculae carneae

bands of connected tissue that line the ventricle walls

60

What is the very prominent band of trabeculae carneae and where is it located?

card image

Moderator band

right ventricle

61

What is the function of the auricles?

to increases volume in the atrium

62

Where is the mitral valve located?

card image

located between the left atrium and left ventricle

63

Where is the tricuspid valve located?

card image

located between the right atrium and right ventricle

64

Where is the aortic valve?

between the left ventricle and aorta

65

Where is the pulmanary valve

between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery

66

what controls the opening and closing of the mitral and tricuspid valves

card image

chordae tendineae

67

Papillary muscles

attached to the ventricle walls and the chordae tendineae.

68

What arteries feed the heart and where so they originate?

card image

Right and left coronary arteries
the originate as the first branches of the aorta.

69

Explain the blood flow through the heart

blood enters the right atrium from the SVC and the IVC.
tricupid valve opens
blood flows into right ventricle
tricuspid valve closes
pulmonary valve opens and blood flows into pulmonary arteries and to the lungs
blood returns from the lungs in the pulmonary veins and enters the left atrium.
mitral valve opens
blood flows into left ventricle
mitral valve closes
aortic valve opens and blood flows into aorta and to the body

70

translocation of great artery

...

71

pulmonary circuit

to lungs and back

72

systemic circuit

to body and back

73

explain the cardiac circulation

two main arties originate from the aorta

Right coronary artery
-posterior descending artery
-marginal artery

Left coronary artery
-left descending artery
-left circumflex coronary artery

74

Sinoatrial node

SA node
known as the pacemaker of heart

75

where is the sinoatrial node located?

card image

right superial lateral aspect of the heart

76

What is the discharge rate of the sinoatrial node?

60 - 100 beats/min

77

What happens to the pulse as it travels from the sinoatrial node?

travels across the two atria causing them to contract.

78

atrialventriciular node

card image

AV - node back for SA node

79

What happens to the pulse when it reaches the AV node?

card image

the pulse is delayed so the ventricles can fill.
then travels down to the bundle of HIS

80

What happens to the pulse as it leaves the bundle of HIS?

card image

The bundle of HIS separates into the right and left Purinje fibers.

81

Diastole

heart at rest atrial fill

82

Systole

electrical fibers hit purkinje fibers and ventrals contract and pump blood out.

83
card image
card image
84
card image
card image
85
card image

moderator band

86

Eustachian valve

squirts 60% blood across the atria in utero

87

Foramen ovale

foramen in utero between the atria where blood is shunted from right to left

88

What is the outside layer of a vessel

Tunica Adventitia

89

What is the middle layer of a vessel

Tunica media

This layer is more developed in arteries then in veins

90

What is the inside layer of a vessel

Tunica intima

91

How does the aorta react to sudden pulses from the left ventrical

expands

92

What is the measurement of the aorta?

should not exceed 3 cm at any level

average 2 cm at superior end

averages 1.5 at bifurcation

93
card image

Aorta

94
card image

Aorta

95

How does the aorta travel to the abdominal area?

card image

passes posteriorally to the left crus of diaphragm at the aortic hiatus

descend inferiorly left to midline

96
card image

...

97
card image

celiac axis

98
card image
card image
99
card image
card image
100
card image

Find the celiac

card image
101

What does the left gastric feed?

card image

lesser curvature of stomach

102

What does the splenic artery feed?

card image

pancreas, spleen and greater curvature of stomach

103

What does the common hepatic artery feed?

card image

liver

104

What is the first branch of the Common Hepatic artery

card image

gastroduodenal artery

105

After the common hepatic passes the gastroduodenal artery it changes names to what?

card image

Proper Hepatic artery

106

The proper hepatic artery bifurcates into?

card image

The right and left hepatic arties

107
card image

Locate the suprarenal arteries

card image

lateraly off arota between superior mesenterica and celiac axis

108

What does the superior mesenteric artery feed?

card image

ileum, cecum, ascending colon, and 2/3 of the transverse colon.

109
card image

superior mesenteric artery

110
card image

Find the superior mesenteric artery

card image
111
card image

Left renal artery

card image
112

Where does the renal artery originate?

card image

originates from the lateral aspect of the aorta
a few cm inferior to the SMA

113

Which renal artery is longer?

card image

Right renal artery is longer

114
card image
card image
115

The right renal artery position to the IVC

runs posterior

116
card image

Gonadal arteries

Ovarian arteries
Testicular arteries

117

What does the IMA feeds?

card image

1/3 transverse colon
descending colon
sigmoid colon
rectum

118
card image

Locate the following
Celiac
supraadrenal arteries
SMA
RA
GA
IMA

card image
119
card image

Common Iliac Arteries

120
card image

Distal aorta at bifurcation

121
card image

aorta

122

What does the brachiocephalic artery turn into?

Bifurcates into the Rt carotid artery and Rt subclavian artery

123
card image

Locate the two iliac veins

card image
124

Does the IVC course superiorly left or right of the aorta?

card image

right

125
card image

IVC

126

Where does the IVC hit the diaphragm?

card image

caval hiatus

127
card image

Locate the IVC

card image
128

What is the first superior branch off the IVC?

card image

Inferior phrenic vein

129

What does the IPV drain?

the diaphragm

130

What vein does the hemiazygos drain into?

into the azygos

131

What does the hemiazygos drain?

left posterior thorax

132
card image

Hemiazygos

133

What does the azygos drain?

posterior thorax

134

Where does the azygos drain?

card image

into superior vena cava

135
card image

Azygos

136
card image

Portal veins

137
card image

portal vein

138
card image
card image
139

How can you tell the difference between the portal veins and the hepatic veins?

The portal veins have echogenic walls

140

Where do the portal veins enter the liver?

card image

portal hepatis

141
card image
card image
142
card image

splenic vein

143
card image

Superior Mesenteric vein

144

Where is the portalsplenic confluence?

the splenic and portal vein meet

145
card image

Right portal vein

146

What are the two branches of the right portal vein?

card image

Anterior and posterior branch

147
card image

Left portal vein

148

what are the two branches of the left portal vein?

Medial and lateral branch

149
card image
card image
150

Explain the differnt functions of the portal veins and the hepatic veins?

The portal veins bring blood toward the liver and the hepatic veins drain the liver

151
card image

Hepatic veins

152
card image

Left hepatic vein

153
card image

middle hepatic veins

154
card image

Right hepatic veins

155

Which branch of the hepatic veins is the largest?

The right branch is the largerst - right lobe is the largest.

156
card image

Hepatic veins

157
card image

Locate the hepatic veins

card image
158
card image

locate the left renal vein

card image
159
card image

Locate the gonadal veins

card image
160
card image

gonadal veins

*left drains into the left renal vein

161
card image

Locate the axillary vien

where does it drain?

card image

drains into subclavian

162
card image

Locate the subclavian

card image
163
card image

Locate the brachiocephalic

card image
164
card image

Locate the azygos vein

card image

azygos

165
card image

SVC

166
card image

Locate the SVC

card image
167

Name the adaptions within fetal circulation

1. Umbilical Vein
2. Ductus Venosus
3. Foramen Ovale
4. Ductus Arteriosus
5. Umbilical Artery

168

Expain the path of blood flow through the fetal circulation

Path through fetal circulation
1. - O UMBILICAL VEIN toward liver
2. - O shunted through DUCTUS VENOSUS to IVC
______2b - O travels to liver
3. - O IVC carries to Rt. Atrium
4. – O atrium mixed with X from SVC
5. – O 65% squirts through FORAMEN OVALE to Lt. atrium
------5b – O 35% pumped into Rt. Ventricle
------5b-1 O pumped into pulmonary artery toward lungs
------5b-2 O shunted through the DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS to aorta
6. – O pumped into into Lt. ventricle
7. – O pumped to Aorta to brain and body
8. – normal blood path through body till the iliac arteries
9. – X blood flows back to placenta in the UMBILICAL ARTERY

169
card image
card image
170
card image
card image
171
card image
card image
172
card image
card image
173
card image
card image
174

Explain Pulmonary Flow

Blood flows from right atrium to Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary artery to lungs
receives oxygen in lungs
lungs to Pulmonary veins
Pulmonary to Lt Atrium

175

Explain the Blood flow to the arms and back

from Subcalvian Artery
Axillary Artery (armpit)
Brachial Artery
-Radial Artery (thumb)
-Ulnar Artery

--Radial Vein(thumb)
--Ulnar Vein
-Brachial Vein
-Basilic Vein
Cephalic Vein

176

Where does the Axillary Artery start and end?

Subclavian Artery turns into the Axillary artery at the armpit
Axillary artery turns into Brachial artery

177
card image
card image

Brachial Artery

178

Where does the Brachial Artery start and end?

The Axillary artery turns into the bracial artery after emerging from the armpit
The Brachial Artery bifurcates into the Radial Artery and the Ulnar Artery at the elbow

179
card image
card image

Radial Artery

180

Where does the Radial Artery start and end?

The Brachial Artery bifurcates into the Radial Artery and the Ulnar Artery at the elbow
The Radial runs on the lateral side of the arm (thumb side) to the hand

181
card image
card image

Ulnar Artery

182

Where does the Ulnar Artery start and end?

The Brachial Artery bifurcates into the Radial Artery and the Ulnar Artery at the elbow
The Ulnar runs on the medial side of the arm (NOT thumb) to the hand

183
card image
card image
184

Where does the Radial Vein start and end?

The Radial Vein flows from the hand (thumb side) toward the elbow
At the Elbow the Radial and Ulnar join to form the Brachial Vein.

185
card image
card image

Ulnar Vein

186

Where does the Ulnar Vein start and end?

The Ulnar Vein flows from the hand (NO thumb) toward the elbow
At the Elbow the Radial Vein and Ulnar Vein join to form the Brachial Vein.

187
card image
card image

Brachial Vein

188

Where does the Brachial Vein start and end?

The Brachial Vein starts at the elbow from the joining of the Ulnar Vein and the Radial vein.
Flowing toward the shoulder joining the Basilic Vein to become the Axillary vein

189
card image
card image

Basilic Vein

190

Where does the Basilic Vein start and end?

The Basilic Vein runs from the hand (No Thumb) toward the shoulder
The Basilic Vein joins the Brachial Vein to become the Axillary Vein

191
card image
card image

Cephalic Vein

192

Where does the Cephalic Vein start and end?

The Cephalic Vein flows from the hand (thumb side) toward the shoulder

The Cephalic flows into the Axillary Vein (2/3 of the way)

193

Arms Venous Protocal

What does compression mean?

Bouncing

194

Arms Venous Protocal

What does augmentation mean?

Squeeze arm which pushes blood backwards.

195

What is DVT?

Deep Vein Thombosis

196

Explain Blood flow through legs

External Iliac Arteries turn into the Femoral Arteries at the pubis bone

Femoral Artery Flows inferiorly toward knee, turns into
Popliteal Artery at the back of the knee

Popliteal Artery Flows behinds the knee

Anterior Tibia Artery is the 1st branch off the Popliteal Artery to the foot

Just past Anterior Tibial Artery branch the Popliteal bifurcates into the Posterior Tibial Artery and the Femoral Artery.

Posterior Tibial flows to the heal of the foot

Fibular (peroneal) Artery flows to the heal.

197
card image
card image

Femoral Artery

198

Where does the Femoral Artery start and end?

External Iliac Arteries turn into the Femoral Arteries at the pubis bone

Femoral Artery Flows inferiorly toward knee, turns into
Popliteal Artery at the back of the knee.

199
card image

popliteal

card image

Popliteal Artery

200

Where does the Popliteal Artery start and end?

The popliteal artery is a continuations of the femoral Artery it begins just superior to the knee and bifurcates into the Posterior Tibial and the Fibular Arteries

201
card image
card image

Posterior Tibial Artery

202

Where does the Posterior Tibial Artery start and end?

The Posterior Tibial Artery begins at the bifurcation of the Popliteal Artery Just inferior to the knee
THe Posterior Tibial flows inferiorly medial to the heal of the foot.

203
card image
card image

Anterior Tibial Artery

204

Where does the Anterior Tibial Artery start and end?

The Anterior Tibial Artery branches off the Popliteal just superior to the bifurcation.
The Anterior Tibial flows between the tibia and fibular to the anterior shin, then runs inferiorly to the foot.

205
card image
card image

Fibular Artery

206

Where does the Fibular Artery start and end?

The Fibular Artery begins at the bifurcation of the Popliteal Artery just inferior to the knee.
The Fibular Artery runs inferiorly lateral to the heal.

207
card image
card image

Anterior Tibial Vein

208

Where does the Anterior Tibial Vein start and end?

The Anterior Tibial begins at the ankle and Flow superiorly to the knee. Then posteriorly between the Tibia and Fibula where it connects to the Popliteal Vein just superior to the Posterior Tibial Vein.

209
card image
card image

Posterior Tibial Vein

210

Where does the Posterior Tibial Vein start and end?

The Posterior Tibial Vein begins at the heal and flows superiorly medial to just inferior to the knee where it joins the Fibular Vein to form the Popliteal Vein.

211
card image
card image

Paraneal Vein

212

Where does the Fibular (peroneal) Vein start and end?

The Fibular Vein begins at the heal and flows superiorly lateral to just inferior to the knee where it joins the Posterior Tibial Vein to form the Popliteal Vean.

213
card image
card image

Great Spahenous Vein

214

Where does the Great Saphenous Vein start and end?

The Great Saphenous Vein begins at the medial ankle and flows up the medial leg to join the Femoral Vein in the pelvis

215
card image
card image

Femoral Vein

216

Where does the Femoral Vein start and end?

Femoral Vein is a continuation of the Popliteal Vein which begins just superiorly to the knee, flows superiorly to the pelvis where it continues as the iliac vein.