Joints and Articulations

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created 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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updated 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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human anatomy
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1

synarthroses

immovable joints

2

amphiarthroses

slightly movable joints

3

diarthroses

freely movable joints

4

classification of joints by structure

fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

5

bones are connected by what?

fibrous joints, very little motion

6

3 types of fibrous joints

sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses

7

sutures

bones are tightly bound (ie skull)

8

syndesmoses

bones are connected with ligaments, between radius and ulna

9

gomphoses

peg in socket ie tooth without socket

10

cartilaginous joints (2 types)

not highly movable synchondrosis and symphasis

11

synchondrosis

a joint where hyaline cartilage connects the bones (ie rib to sternum)

12

symphasis

a joint where fibrocartilage connects the bones

13

synovial joints

the most movable joint, majority of joints fall into this category

14

articular cartilage

cartilage covering the ends of bones comprising the joints

15

joint cavity

space surrounding the joint itself

16

articular capsule

double layer of tissue surrounding the joint cavity wall

17

synovial fluid

liquid inside the joint cavity, reduces friction, secreted by synovial membrane

18

reinforcing ligaments

help to stabilize joint

19

nerves and vessels

sensation, nutrient supply

20

articular disc/meniscus

disc of fibrocartilage to help articulating bones fit with one another

21

bursae and tendon sheaths

pockets containing synovial fluid
reduce friction at the joint

22

gliding

flat surfaces of two bones cross on another
found in joints formed by carpals and metacarpals, and vertebrae

23

angular movements

change the angle between two bones

24

flexion

decrease the angle between two bones

25

extension

increase the angle between two bones

26

hyperextension

extending a bone beyond its normal range

27

abduction

movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

28

adduction

movement of a limb towards the midline of the body

29

circumduction

limb movement in a circle (makes a cone)

30

rotation

movement of a bone around an axis
occurs between C1 and C2 as well as along entire length of spine
occurs at hip and shoulder joints

31

protraction

non-angular movement in the anterior direction

32

retraction

non-angular movement in the posterior direction

33

elevation

lifting a body part in a superior direction

34

depression

lowering a body part inferiorly

35

supination

movement of the forearm so the palm faces forward

36

pronation

movement of the forearm so the palm faces posteriorly

37

opposition

allows thumb to touch tips of the fingers on the same hand

38

inversion

turning the sole of the foot medially

39

eversion

turning the sole of the foot laterally

40

dorsiflexion

lifting the foot so the toes point superiorly

41

plantarflexion

elevating the heel so the toes point inferiorly

42

plane

articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved
sliding or twisting
ie wrist ankle sternum-clavicle

43

hinge

surface of one bone articulates to a concave surface on another bone
allows for flexion/extension
ie elbow

44

pivot

cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of another bone and ligament
allows for rotation around central axis
ie proximal articulation of radius and ulna

45

condylar

oval shaped condyle of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another bone
variety of movements, no rotation, ie metacarpals

46

saddle

concave surface in one direction and convex in the other
back and forth, side to side
ie thumb

47

ball and socket

ball shaped head of one bone articulates with cup shaped cavity of another bone
all planes of movement
ie hip and shoulder

48

articular surfaces

some bones fit together in a way that articular surfaces help stabilize joints, most are too shallow for this though

49

ligaments

tissue connecting bone to bone in a synovial joint

50

muscle

there is a constant level of tension in muscles that cross joints which assist in joint reinforcement

51

temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

jaw
where the head of the mandible articulates with the temporal bone
modified hinge joint

52

TMJ types of movement

elevation
depression
lateral movement
protraction
retraction

53

glenohumeral joint

shoulder, wide range of motion
most stability comes from muscle tendons crossing the joint (bicep brachii and rotator cuff)

54

glenoid labrum

ring of fibrocartilage that aids in stability

55

glenohumeral joint ligaments (2)

coarcohumeral and glenohumeral

56

humeroulnar joint (elbow)

only allows flexion and extension

57

humeroulnar ligaments

annular ligament around the head of the radius, radial collateral ligament and ulnar collateral ligament

58

humeroulnar tendons

bicep and tricep brachii cross humeroulnar joint to provide stability

59

hip joint

ball and socket, wide range of motion

60

acetabular labrum

rim of fibrocartilage, helps maintain articulation between head of femur acetabulum

61

hip ligaments

iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral

62

knee joint

largest most complext joint
primarily hinge joint, allows flexion and extension
12+ bursae

63

subcutaneous prepatellar bursa

most commonly injured if knee is bumped

64

how is the knee stabilized?

primarily by tendons of the quadricep femoris

65

menisci

C shaped rings of cartilage
attach to condyles of the tibia to stabilize
lateral meniscus
medial meniscus

66

tibial/medial collateral ligament (MCL)

runs from the medial epicondyle of femur distally to medial condyle of tibia

67

fibular/lateral collateral ligament (LCL)

runs from lateral condyle of femur to the head of the fibula

68

oblique popliteal ligament

crosses posterior capsule

69

arcuate popliteal ligament

arcs from head of fibula

70

anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

arises from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia and runs posteriorly to attach to femor on medial side of lateral condyle

71

posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

arises from posterior intercondylar area of the tibia and runs anteriorly to attach to femor on lateral side of the medial condyle

72

torn meniscus

caused by forceful twisting, hyperflexion

73

torn ACL

common in non-contact sports
from stopping and quick direction change
must be replaced via surgery

74

torn cartilage

from aggressive rotation
damaged portions removed

75

knee sprains

stabilizing ligaments are stretched/torn, movement is compromised

76

dislocations (knee)

bones of joints are forced out of alignment

77

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa
friction due to overuse

78

tendonitis

inflammation of a tendon

79

arthritis

inflammatory disease of joints

80

osteoarthritis

long term condition
caused by wear and tear
develops in 85% of Americans
articular cartilages soften and erode

81

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic inflammatory disorder
autoimmune diesase causing inflammation, scars, eventual immobilization (ankyloses)