Milady Standard Cosmetology 2012: CH #5 WORDS Flashcards
Abbreviated AIDS; a disease that breaks down the body’s immune system. AIDS is caused
by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, through inoculation (such
as flu vaccinations), or through exposure to natural allergens, such as pollen, cat dander,
Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless
Chemical germicides formulated for use on skin; registered and regulated by the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA).
Showing no symptoms or signs of infection.
Short rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such
as tetanus (lockjaw), typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphtheria.
One-celled microorganisms that have both plant and animal characteristics. Some are
harmful; some are harmless.
Capable of destroying bacteria.
The division of bacteria cells into two new cells called daughter cells.
number of viable organisms in or on an object or surface or the organic material on a
surface or object before decontamination or sterilization.
Disease-causing microorganisms carried in the body by blood or body fluids, such as
hepatitis and HIV.
Also known as chelating detergents;
detergents that break down stubborn films and remove the residue of pedicure products such as scrubs, salts, and masks.
A mechanical process (scrubbing) using soap and water or detergent and water to remove all
visible dirt, debris, and many disease-causing germs. Cleaning also removes invisible debris
that interferes with disinfection. Cleaning is what cosmetologists are required to do before
Round-shaped bacteria that appear singly (alone) or in groups. The three types of cocci are
staphylococci, streptococci, and diplococci.
Also known as communicable disease;
disease that is spread from one person to another person. Some of the more contagious diseases are the common cold, ringworm,
viral infections, and natural nail or toe and foot infections.
The presence, or the reasonably anticipated presence, of blood or other potentially infectious
materials on an item’s surface or visible debris or residues such as dust, hair, and skin.
The removal of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item’s surface and the
removal of visible debris or residue such as dust, hair, and skin.
Determination of the nature of a disease from its symptoms and/or diagnostic tests. Federal
regulations prohibit salon professionals from performing a diagnosis.
Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia.
Transmission of blood or body fluids through touching (including shaking hands), kissing,
coughing, sneezing, and talking.
An abnormal condition of all or part of the body, or its systems or organs, that makes the
body incapable of carrying on normal function.
Chemical products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces.
A chemical process that uses specific products to destroy harmful organisms (except
bacterial spores) on environmental surfaces.
The ability to produce an effect.
Contact with nonintact (broken) skin, blood, body fluid or other potentially infectious materials that is the result of the performance of an employee’s duties.
Slender, hairlike extensions used by bacilli and spirilla for locomotion (moving about). Mayalso be referred to as cilia.
Microscopic plant parasites, which include molds, mildews, and yeasts; can produce
contagious diseases such as ringworm.
Capable of destroying fungi.
A bloodborne virus that causes disease and can damage the liver.
Disinfectants that are effective for cleaning blood and body fluids.
Human immunodeficiency virus
Abbreviated HIV; virus that causes aquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
human papilloma virus
Abbreviated HPV and also known as plantar warts; a virus that can infect the bottom of the
foot and resembles small black dots, usually in clustered groups.
The ability of the body to destroy and resist infection. Immunity against disease can be either
natural or acquired and is a sign of good health.
Transmission of blood or body fluids through contact with an intermediate contaminated
object such as a razor, extractor, nipper, or an environmental surface.
The invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens.
Are the methods used to eliminate or reduce the transmission of infectious organisms.
Caused by or capable of being transmitted by infection.
Disease caused by pathogenic (harmful) microorganisms that enter the body. An infectious
disease may or may not be spread from one person to another person.
A condition in which the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection; characterized by
redness, heat, pain, and swelling.
An infection, such as a pimple or abscess, that is confined to a particular part of the body
and appears as a lesion containing pus.
Material Safety DataSheet
Abbreviated MSDS; information compiled by the manufacturer about product safety,
including the names of hazardous ingredients, safe handling and use procedures, precautions
to reduce the risk of accidental harm or overexposure, and flammability warnings.
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
Abbreviated MRSA; a type of infectious bacteria that is highly resistant to conventional
treatments such as antibiotics.
Any organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size.
A type of fungus that affects plants or grows on inanimate objects, but does not cause
human infections in the salon.
Also known as reusable; items that can be cleaned, disinfected, and used on more than
one person, even if the item is accidentally exposed to blood or body fluid.
A microscopic germ that normally exists in tap water in small numbers.
Immunity that is partly inherited and partly developed through healthy living.
Harmless microorganisms that may perform useful functions and are safe to come in contact
with since they do not cause disease or harm.
An item that is made or constructed of a material that has no pores or openings and cannot
Illness resulting from conditions associated with employment, such as prolonged and
repeated overexposure to certain products or ingredients.
Organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism (referred to as the host),
while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism. Parasites must have a host
Disease caused by parasites, such as lice and mites.
Harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade
Disease produced by organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
Powerful tuberculocidal disinfectants. They are a form of formaldehyde, have a very high pH,
and can damage the skin and eyes.
Made or constructed of a material that has pores or openings. Porous items are absorbent.
A fluid created by infection.
Quaternary ammonium compounds
Also known as quats; disinfectants that are very effective when used properly in the salon.
Also known as sanitizing; a chemical process for reducing the number of disease-causing
germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level.
A contagious skin disease that is caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin.
Also known as disposable; items that cannot be used more than once. These items cannot
be properly cleaned so that all visible residue is removed—such as pumice stones used for
pedicures—or they are damaged or contaminated by cleaning and disinfecting.
Common household bleach; an effective disinfectant for the salon.
Spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria that cause diseases such as syphilis and Lyme disease.
Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes. They cause abscesses,
pustules, and boils.
The process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores.
Pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads. They cause
infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning.
Disease that affects the body as a whole, often due to under-functioning or over-functioning
of internal glands or organs. This disease is carried through the blood stream or the
Also known as barber’s itch; a superficial fungal infection that commonly affects the skin.
It is primarily limited to the bearded areas of the face and neck or around the scalp.
A fungal infection of the scalp characterized by red papules, or spots, at the opening of the
A ringworm fungus of the foot.
Various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms (bacteria and viruses).
Disinfectants that kill the bacteria that causes tuberculosis.
A disease caused by bacteria that are transmitted through coughing or sneezing.
A set of guidelines published by OSHA that require the employer and the employee to
assume that all human blood and body fluids are infectious for bloodborne pathogens.
Capable of destroying viruses.
virus (plural: viruses)
A parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in cells of biological organisms.
A virus is capable of replication only through taking over the host cell’s reproductive function.