Chapter 6

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Biology
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College: First year
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1

Kinetic vs Potential energy

kinetic- movement
potential- stored

2

1st law of thermodynamics

energy cannot be created of destroyed but it can be transferred

3

2nd law of thermodynamics

- transfer of energy increases entropy or degree of disorder of a system

4

Entropy

measure of the randomness of molecules in a system

5

Enthalaphy (H)

total energy

6

Free energy (G)

usable energy
determines direction of chemical reaction

7

Exergonic reactions

- delta G < 0, negative
- spontaneous
- may take awhile
- favors going from reactants to products
- does not need energy

8

endergonic reactions

- delta G > 0, positive
- needs energy
- not spontaneous

9

Activation energy

-initial energy to start a reaction
- can be altered by heat or enzymes

10

cofactors

- inorganic
- temporarily bind to the surface of an enzyme and promote a chemical reaction

11

coenzymes

- organic
- temporarily bind to the surface of an enzyme and participate in the chemical reaction but are left unchanged

12

prosthetic group

small molecules that are permanently attached to the surface of an enzyme and aid in catalysis

13

competitive inhibitor

fights for the active spot so Km increases to meet the same Vmax

14

non competitive inhibitor

-lowers the Vmax without affecting the Km
- binds non covalently to the alloristic site

15

Enzymes

- lower activation energy
- recognize substrates
- are affected by temperature pH and cofactors

16

Oxidation (OIL+)

Loss of electrons
more negative charge

17

reduction (RIG-)

gain of electrons