Chapter five

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1

Describe the components of biological membranes

biological membranes are a mosaic of lipids, proteins and carbs
-50% protein, 50% lipid, carbs stick outside the cell

2

Phospholipid Bilayer

- foundation for membranes
- form a bilker that has two layers of phospholipids
- hydrophilic (water loving) non polar & hydrophobic (water fearing) polar region

3

Fluid mosaic model

- has fluid like properties
- lipids and proteins can move relative to each other in the membrane

4

integral membrane protein (intrinsic)

- cannot be released form the membrane unless the membrane is dissolved with an organic solvent or detergent -- aka you would have to disrupt the integrity of the membrane to remove it

5

integral membrane transmembrane protein

- most common type of IMP
- Has 1 or more regions that are physically inserted into the hydrophobic region of the phospholipid bilayer

6

Transmembrane segments

- stretches of non polar amino acids that span the membrane from 1 leaflet to the other
- helix structure

7

I.M.P lipid anchored protein

has a lipid molecule that is covalently attached to an amino acid side chain within the protein

8

peripheral membrane protein (extrinsic)

non-covalently bound to regions of integral membrane proteins that project out form the membrane or they are bound to the polar head group of phospholipids

9

fluidity

-individual molecules remain in close association yet have the ability to readily move within the membrane

10

Factors affecting fluidity

1. length of fatty acid tails
- the longer the tail, the less fluidity
2. presence of double bonds in the fatty acyl tails
-dbl bond = kink.
3. presence of cholesterol

11

Passive transport

- no energy needed
- high to low

12

Active transport

- low to high
- aid from transport protein
1. primary- ATP is used directly
2. secondary- ends in a high concentration gradient

13

Concentration Gradient

- along with, down = high to low
- against, up = low to high

14

Passive vs. facilitated diffusion

passive moves directly through a phospholipid binary via diffusion, facilitated has a passageway provided by a transport protein

15

glycolipid vs. glycoprotein

lipid = carb attaches to a lipid
protein = carb attaches to a protein

16

transmembrane gradient

concentration of a membrane is higher on one side than another

17

electro chemical gradient

- involves ions
- both electrical and chemical components

18

glycosylation

process of covalently attaching a carb to a lipid/protein

19

osmosis

- the movement across membranes to balance solute conc.
- hypo-hyper
-mainly water

20

isotonic

- solute concentrations are equal

21

hypertonic

- solute concentration outside the cell is higher

22

hypotonic

solute outside the cell is lower

23

is the movement of water trough osmosis active or passive transport?

passive

24

what is an aquaporin?

- protein that allows water to diffuse through spore in the membrane
- channel

25

transport proteins

transmembrane proteins that provide a passageway for the movement of ions and hydrophilic molecules across membranes

26

channels

form an open passageway for the facilitated diffusion of ions or molecules across the membrane

27

transporters (carriers)

- bind their solutes in a hydrophilic pocket and undergo a conformational change that switches the exposure of the pocket from one side of the membrane to another
- slower than channels

28

what are the three types of transporter protein

uniporter
symporters
antiporters

29

uniporters

bind a single ion or molecule together and transport it across the membrane

30

symporters

co transporters
- bind two or more ions or molecules together and transport them in the same direction

31

antiporters

bind two or more ions or molecules together and transport them in opposite directions

32

primary active transport

needs a pump
uses energy directly ATP

33

secondary active transport

-conc grad and ATP
- ends in a high conc grad

34

exo cytosis

material inside the cell is packaged into vesicles and then excreted into the extracellular environment
- hormones, digestive enzymes

35

endocytosis

plasma membrane folds inward to form a vesicle that brings substances into the cell
- immune system