Chapter four

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Biology
Chapter 4
Biology
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College: First year
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1

Explain the Cell Theory

1. All living things have cells
2. Cells are the smallest units of life
3. New cells come form preexisting cells

2

What is resolution?

A measure of clarity

3

What is contrast?

The ability to visualize a cell structure on how different it looks from an adjacent structure

4

Light microscope vs. electron microscope

A microscope that uses light for illumination
A microscope that uses an electric beam for illumination

5

Transmission electron micrograph vs scanning electron micrograph

TEM- sees inside specimen
SEM- scans over specimen
Both are types of electron microscopes

6

Factors that limit cell size

1. matter
2. energy
3. organization
4. information

7

Prokaryote vs. Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes- no nucleus, bacteria & archaea, lack of internal compartmentalization
Eukaryotes- nucleus, plant & animal

8

Nucleus

Area where most of the genetic material is organized and expressed
in both plant and animal cells

9

nuclear pore

passage way for molecules into and out of the nucleus
in both plant and animal cells

10

nuclear envelope

double membrane that encloses the nucleus
in both plant and animal cells

11

nucleolus

site for ribosome subunit assembly
in both plant and animal cells

12

chromatin

a complex of protein and DNA
in both plant and animal cells

13

lysosome

site where macromolecules are degraded
in both plant and animal cells

14

ribosome

site of polypeptide synthesis
in both plant and animal cells

15

plasma membrane

membrane that controls movement of substances into and out of the cell; site of cell signaling
in both plant and animal cells

16

cytosol

site of many metabolic pathways
in both plant and animal cells

17

golgi apparatus

site of modification sorting, and secretion of lipids and proteins
in both plant and animal cells

18

peroxisome

site where hydrogen peroxide and other harmful molecules are broken down
in both plant and animal cells

19

cytoskeleton

protein filaments that provide shape and aid in movement
in both plant and animal cells

20

mitochondrion

site of ATP synthesis
in both plant and animal cells

21

smooth er

site of detoxification and lipid synthesis
in both plant and animal cells

22

rough er

site of protein sorting and secretion
in both plant and animal cells

23

centrosome

site where microtubules grow and centrioles are found
only in animal cells

24

cell wall

structure that provides cell support
only in plant cells

25

chloroplast

site of photosynthesis
only in plant cells

26

vacuole

site that provides storage, regulation of cell volume
only in plant cells

27

Nucleus Group

-location of most of the genome
-gene regulation
-organization and protection of chromosomes via the nuclear matrix

28

Cytosol group

- coordination of responses to the environment
- coordination of metabolism
- synthesis of the proteome
- organization and movement via a cytoskeleton and motor proteins

29

Endomembrane system

1. Nuclear envelope
2. Endoplasmic reticulum
3. golgi apparatus
4. lysosome/vacuoles
5. peroxisomes
6. plasma membrane

30

semiautonomous organelles

1. mitochondria
2. chloroplasts