The Spine

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created 7 years ago by hoovemaa
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Bones and structure of the vertebral column
updated 7 years ago by hoovemaa
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1

spine

26 bones extending from the skull to the pelvis

2

spinal regions superior to inferior

cervical (c1-c7)
thoracic (t1-t12)
lumbar (L1-L5)
sacrum (5 fused)
coccyx (3-5 fused)

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curvature of the spine

cervical- concave
thoracic- convex
lumbar-concave
sacral- convex

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scoliosis

abnormal lateral curvature due to uneven muscle growth

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kyphosis (hunchback)

exaggerated thoracic curvature
caused by compression fractures usually

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lordosis (sway back)

exaggerated lumbar curvature
caused by carrying too much weight in front
usually during pregnancy or obesity

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anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments

run length of vertebral column
prevent hyperextension and hyperflexion

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ligament flavum

one of the many ligaments that runs vertebrae to vertebrae

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intervetebral discs

pads between vertebrae
25% of the length of the spine
absorb shock

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intervetebral disc structure

nucleus pulposus- inner jelly like layer
anulus fibrosus- outer layer made of ligaments and fibrocartilage

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herniated (slipped) disc

caused by heavy lifting
anulus fibrosus ruptures, allows nucleus pulposus to protrude
puts pressure on spinal nerve roots and pain

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vertebrae body

large anterior portion
weight bearing

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spinous process

posterior projection

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transverse processes

lateral projections

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pedicles

connect body to transverse processes

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lamina

connect transverse processes to spinous process

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vertebral arch

structure formed by pedicles and lamina
forms spinal canal

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superior articular process

project superiorly
superior articular facets
smooth area on processes

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inferior articular processes

project inferiorly
inferior articular facets-smooth area on process

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inferior articular facets of vertebrae joins with what?

superior articular facet of vertebrae inferior to it

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intervertebral foramina

openings between adjacent vertebrae for passage of spinal nerves

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C1/atlas

no body and no spinous process
very large superior articular facets for occiptal condyles
allows head to nod

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C2/axis

has a dense londontoid process projecting superior from the body
allows head to rotate

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C3-C7

bifid spinous process (except C7) spinous rocess is split at its tip
transverse foramina- holes in transverse processes
articular facets ine in an oblique/horizontally

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T1-T12

articulate with ribs
costal facets on vertebrae body and transverse process
spinous process is long and points inferioruly
articular facets lie in frontal plane

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L1-L5

very large
spinous processes are blunt and fac directly posterior
articular facets lie in saggital plane

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sacrum

posterior wall of pelvis
5 fixed vertebrae
S1 articulates with L5 via superior articular process

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sacral promentory

top edge of body of S1

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anterior sacral foramina

for passage of ventral branches of spinal nerves

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median sacral crest

runs vertically along midline of posterior surface

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posterior sacral foramina

for passage of dorsal branches of spinal nerves

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lateral sacral crest

runs vertically along midline of posterior surface

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posterior sacral foramina

for passage of dorsal branches of spinal nerves

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lateral sacral crest

ridge just lateral to posterior sacral foramina

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sacral canal

continuation of vertebral canal

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sacral hiatus

external opening at the terminal end of the sacral canal

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coccyx

tail bone
3-5 fused vertebrae

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sternum

breast bone

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manubrium

superior portion
clavicular notches on superiorlateral surface
jugular/supasternal notch- medial indentation on superior aspect

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body

majority of sternum

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xiphoid process

small projection at bottom

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xiphisternal joint

where xiphoid process and body articulate
superficial to heart

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ribs

12 pairs

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true ribs

superior 7 pairs
attach directly to sternum via costal cartilage

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false ribs

pairs 8 through 12
no direct attachment to sternum, attach indirectly or not at all

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floating ribs

pairs 11 and 12
no anterior attachments

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rib body/shaft

main portion

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rib head

rounded end
articulates with vertebral body

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costal groove

ridge along thin inferior border