________ is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants.
A) Target marketing
B) Mind mapping
C) Consumer activism
D) Consumer behavior
E) Product differentiation
Which of the following would be the best illustration of a subculture?
A) a religion
B) a group of close friends
C) your university
D) a fraternity or sorority
E) your occupation
The relatively homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society, which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behavior constitute ________.
A) a culture
B) a subculture
C) a social class
D) a family
E) a group
A person's ________ consist(s) of all the groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence on his/her attitudes or behavior.
C) social class
D) reference groups
E) social networks
A(n) ________ group is one whose values or behavior an individual rejects.
Joe is a computer service technician. People in his neighborhood usually depend on his suggestions for purchasing any computer accessory or hardware, as they believe that he has access to far more information on computer technology than the average consumer. The neighbors are also aware that Joe has the required knowledge and background for understanding the technical properties of the products. Within this context, Joe can be called a(n) ________.
A) transactional leader
B) opinion leader
C) role model
E) international marketer
For a high-school student, Tim is highly concerned about environmental issues. He is a strong supporter of the garbage recycling and afforestation campaigns taken up by the environmental activists in his neighborhood. He wants to become a full time volunteer for their upcoming wildlife protection program and has even saved money to contribute to the cause. This group of environmental activists can be categorized under which of the following reference groups?
A) primary group
B) secondary group
C) aspirational group
D) dissociative group
E) cognitive group
Jason writes a weekly column in his school's newspaper about movies he has seen, books he has read, and concerts he has attended. His column provides information and opinions. Feedback from his fellow students is positive, and they are appreciative of the advice that is given. Which of the following would be the most apt description of the role played by Jason?
A) silent majority
E) opinion leader
Social classes differ in media preferences, with upper-class consumers often preferring ________ and lower-class consumers often preferring television.
C) video or computer games
D) magazines and books
E) music downloads
If a direct-mail marketer wished to direct promotional efforts toward the family of ________, efforts need to be directed toward parents and siblings of the family members.
The family in a buyers life consisting of parents and siblings is the ________.
A) family of procreation
B) family of influence
C) family of efficiency
D) family of orientation
E) purchasing family
When Gary was a high school student, he enjoyed rock music and regularly purchased hip clothing sported by his favorite rock band. However, five years later, when Gary became an accountant, his preference shifted toward formal clothing. Which of the following personal characteristics is likely to have had the most influence on Gary's preferences during his high school days?
E) physiological needs
Marriage, childbirth, and divorce constitute the ________ that shape the consumption pattern of individuals.
A) psychological life cycle
B) product life cycle
C) social status
D) postpuberty cycles
E) critical life events
Identify an economic circumstance that can greatly affect any product or brand choice.
D) borrowing power
________ refers to a set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to environmental stimuli.
C) Psychological transformation
Brand personality analysts identified the popular music channel MTV as daring, spirited, and highly imaginative. As per Jennifer Aaker's research, which of the following brand personality traits best suits MTV?
The Marlboro Man was depicted in the advertisements of Marlboro cigarettes as a rugged outdoor, tough cowboy type. This was done to establish what is called ________.
B) a brand name
C) a brand personality
E) a brand reference
Consumers often choose and use brands that have a brand personality consistent with how they see themselves, also known as the ________.
A) actual self-concept
B) ideal self-concept
C) others' self-concept
D) prohibitive self-concept
E) suggestive self-concept
Consumers often choose and use brands that have a brand personality consistent with how they think others view them, also known as the ________.
A) actual self-concept
B) others' self-concept
C) ideal self-concept
D) dual self-concept
E) perceptual self-concept
Consumers who are highly sensitive to how others see them and who choose brands whose personalities fit the consumption situation are called ________.
A) change agents
B) self motivators
C) self monitors
D) self adapters
E) opinion leaders
Within the context of Jennifer Aaker's analysis, identify the brand personality that can be associated with a new product whose promotional messages consistently portray it as being reliable, intelligent, and successful.
Ford motors, uses the ad caption "Magnify the Adventure" to promote its latest SUV, the Ford Endeavour. The ad features the car traveling through an uneven, rocky terrain. Within the context of Jennifer Aaker's brand personality analysis, Ford Endeavour is most likely to be strong on which of the following traits?
________ portrays the "whole person" interacting with his or her environment.
Consumers who worry about the environment and want products to be produced in a sustainable way have been named ________.
B) "Tree Huggers"
IKEA has achieved global recognition by offering consumers leading-edge Scandinavian furniture at affordable prices. IKEA is delivering value to consumers who are ________.
A) money constrained
B) time constrained
C) brand constrained
D) value constrained
E) self-concept constrained
Marketers who target consumers on the basis of their ________ believe that they can influence purchase behavior by appealing to people's inner selves.
A) time famine
C) money constrain
D) social class
E) core values
The starting point for understanding consumer behavior is the ________ model in which marketing and environmental stimuli enter the consumer's consciousness, and a set of psychological processes combine with certain consumer characteristics to result in decision processes and purchase decisions.
________ assumed that the psychological forces shaping people's behavior are largely unconscious, and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own motivations.
A) Abraham Maslow
B) Frederick Herzberg
C) Sigmund Freud
D) John Cacioppo
E) Karl Marx
Which of the following techniques was suggested by Freud to trace a person's motivations from the stated instrumental ones to the more terminal ones?
B) word association
C) role playing
E) selective attention
Which of the following theories developed by Frederick Herzberg distinguishes dissatisfiers from satisfiers?
A) trait-role theory
B) psychological constraint theory
C) probability theory
D) leadership model
E) two-factor theory
At the top of Maslow's hierarchy of needs (shown as a pyramid in the text) are ________ needs.
________ is the process by which we select, organize, and interpret information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world.
E) Cognitive dissonance
________ can work to the advantage of marketers with strong brands when consumers make neutral or ambiguous brand information more positive.
A) Selective attention
B) Selective distortion
C) Selective retention
D) Selective choice
E) Selective embellishment
________ is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our preconceptions.
A) Selective retention
B) Cognitive dissonance
C) Selective distortion
D) Subliminal perception
E) Selective embellishment
Marketers embed covert messages in ads or packaging of which the consumers are not consciously aware, yet it affects their behavior. This technique employed by the marketers targets the ________ of a consumer.
A) selective attention
B) selective distortion
C) subliminal perception
D) voluntary attention
E) selective retention
________ teaches marketers that they can build demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement.
A) Demand theory
B) Learning theory
C) Economic theory
D) Psychological theory
E) Demographic theory
Anne is a frequent purchaser of Yoplait strawberry yogurt. For once, she decides to try a different flavored yogurt. Instead of trying out the flavors offered by competing brands, Anne selects a different flavor offered by Yoplait. Here, her past experience with the brand prompts her to make the choice. Anne's behavior can be best described as ________.
A) fallacy of proposition
B) associative networking
D) heuristic thinking
The ________ says people have a general tendency to attribute success to themselves and failure to external causes.
A) availability heuristic
B) trait-role theory
C) awareness set
D) generalization theory
E) hedonic bias
As Rita scans the yellow pages section of her phone book looking for a florist, she sees several other products and services advertised. Though interesting on first glance, she quickly returns to her primary task of finding a florist. The items that distracted her from her initial search were most likely stored in which of the following types of memory?
A) Short-term memory
B) Long-term memory
C) Middle memory
D) Subconscious memory
E) Subliminal memory
Betsy, a teenager, uses most of her post school hours in either playing tennis or watching movies. She barely manages to concentrate in her lessons for a couple of hours before term exams. Being questioned about her substandard performance in the school, she points out the teacher's inability to complete the entire course during the school hours as the possible reason. Betsy's behavior is most likely to be associated with ________.
B) hedonic bias
D) selective attention
E) psychological repositioning
The associative network memory model views long-term memory as ________.
A) a subliminal perception
B) the interplay of drives
C) a strong internal stimulus impelling action
D) a temporary and limited repository of information
E) a set of nodes and links
________ refers to the process in which information gets out of memory.
A) Memory encoding
B) Memory decoding
C) Memory classification
D) Memory retrieval
Amtex electronics, a consumer products brand, advertises its products inside supermarkets and retail stores frequently to promote the process of ________ and stimulate purchase.
A) memory verification
B) memory retrieval
C) memory decoding
D) memory formation
E) memory augmentation
Cognitive psychologists believe that memory is ________, so that once information becomes stored in memory, its strength of association decays very slowly.
A) highly perceptual
B) somewhat collective
C) highly communicative
D) often reflective
E) extremely durable
The milder information search state where a person simply becomes more receptive to information about a product is called ________.
A) active information search
B) information search
C) heightened attention
D) purchase decision
E) dynamic information search
The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a(n) ________.
B) advertisement for the product
C) salesperson from a previous visit
D) problem or need
E) internal cue
Which of the following is considered to be a more advanced form of information search wherein the person might phone friends or go online to secure information about a product or service?
A) heightened attention
B) short-term memory processing
C) subliminal processing of information
D) long-term memory processing
E) active information search
Of key interest to marketers are the major informational sources to which the consumer will turn and the relative importance of each. Which of the following can be considered an experiential information source?
A) consumer-rating organizations
B) mass media
D) Web sites
E) personal handing and examination
Brands that meet consumers' initial buying criteria are called the ________.
A) total set
B) awareness set
C) consideration set
D) choice set
E) decision set
Maria considers buying a car for herself, after she notices the advantages derived by her best friend from his new car. Which of the following forms of stimulus has activated Maria's problem recognition process?
A) external stimuli
B) internal stimuli
C) peer stimuli
D) secondary stimuli
E) marketing induced stimuli
A consumer who uses Google to find comparative reports on new automobiles, is most likely using which of the following information sources for assistance?
With respect to consumer decision making, the ________ is the set of strong contenders from which one will be chosen as a supplier of a good or service.
A) total set
B) awareness set
C) consideration set
D) choice set
E) decision set
A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something.
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A(n) ________ puts people into a frame of mind, such as, liking or disliking an object, moving toward or away from it.
Marketers need to identify the hierarchy of attributes that guide consumer decision making in order to understand different competitive forces and how these various sets get formed. This process of identifying the hierarchy is called ________.
A) market partitioning
B) brand association
C) market valuation
D) market estimation
E) market identification
________ are a person's enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotional feelings, and action tendencies toward some object or idea.
The expectancy-value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate products and services by combining their ________.
D) brand beliefs
E) consuming attitudes
Gordon Jones is considering purchasing a computer from Best Buy. He has created a scale for rating eight different computers on three different characteristics. He plans to short-list only those computers, that score at least a seven on his scale on all three characteristics. Which of the following choice heuristics has he chosen?
A) elimination-by-aspects heuristic
B) lexicographic heuristic
C) conjunctive heuristic
D) anchoring and adjustment heuristic
E) representativeness heuristic
With the ________ heuristic, the consumer sets a minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute and chooses the first alternative that meets the minimum standard for all attributes.
________ are rules of thumb or mental shortcuts in the decision process.
Even if consumers form brand evaluations, two general factors can intervene between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. One of these is unanticipated situational factors. What is the other factor?
A) Amount of purchasing power
B) Attitudes of others
C) Short-term memory capabilities
D) Ability to return merchandise
E) The self-concept
A mobile phone manufacturing company observes that the main reason for an abrupt fall in their sales volume is the unconventional design of their phones that consumers found inconvenient and unattractive. The findings prompt the company to adopt a new strategy. They redesigned the product models keeping the requirements of the end-user in mind. According to the expectancy value-model, the company's strategy can be termed as ________.
A) psychological repositioning
B) real repositioning
C) competitive depositioning
D) physiological depositioning
E) prescriptive method
Ford believes its cars to be of higher quality than General Motor's but thinks that consumers wrongly believe the opposite. Ford might employ a(n) ________ strategy to change buyers' perceptions of its competition.
A) real repositioning
B) competitive depositioning
C) psychological repositioning
D) biased repositioning
E) attribute repositioning
When a marketer tries to alter a consumer's beliefs about a company's brand to get the consumer to rethink a purchase decision, the marketer is using ________.
A) psychological repositioning
B) competitive depositioning
E) biased positioning
With the ________, the consumer chooses the best brand on the basis of its perceived most important attribute.
A) lexicographic heuristic
B) conjunctive heuristic
C) elimination-by-aspects heuristic
D) availability heuristic
E) representativeness heuristic
________ risk occurs if the product fails to perform up to expectations.
Steve has only 20 minutes to have lunch. Although he really likes McDonald's, the line is very long and he is concerned that he will not have a chance to get through the line and eat his lunch before he is due back at work. Steve perceives ________ in going to McDonald's today.
A) time risk
B) functional risk
C) physical risk
D) psychological risk
E) social risk
A key driver of sales frequency is the product ________ rate.
The level of engagement and active processing undertaken by the consumer in responding to a marketing stimulus is called ________.
A) elaboration likelihood
B) consumer disengagement
C) consumer involvement
D) variety seeking
E) low involvement
A consumer is persuaded to buy a product by a message that requires little thought and is based on an association with a brand's positive consumption experiences from the past. In this situation, the consumer used a ________ to arrive at this purchase decision.
A) central route
B) peripheral route
C) behavioral route
D) subjective route
E) objective route
Richard Petty and John Cacioppo's ________, an influential model of attitude formation and change, describes how consumers make evaluations in both low- and high-involvement circumstances.
A) introspective model
B) elaboration likelihood model
C) stimulus-response model
D) associative network memory model
E) expectancy-value model
Which of the following products is most likely to be characterized by low involvement but significant brand difference?
B) digital cameras
C) packet of salt
D) a milk carton
With the ________, predictions of usage are based on quickness and ease of use.
A) availability heuristic
B) representative heuristic
C) anchoring heuristic
D) adjustment heuristic
E) semantic heuristic
A consumer tells another consumer, "Every time I eat at Big Bill's Steakhouse, I get poor service." Whether this is true or not, it is the consumer's perception. This is an example of consumers basing future predictions on the quickness and ease with which a particular example of an outcome comes to mind. This scenario would be an illustration of the ________ heuristic.
Ben always reaches for the bright blue and yellow box of Ritz crackers when he visits the snack food aisle in the grocery store. He rarely even reads the box or checks the price. Which of the following heuristics is most likely being used by Ben?
________ refers to the manner in which consumers code, categorize, and evaluate financial outcomes of choices.
A) Cost accounting
B) Financial accounting
C) Behavioral accounting
D) Mental accounting
E) Factual accounting
Social class is the fundamental determinant of a person's wants and behavior.
An example of a subculture would be a person's geographic region.
Groups that have an indirect influence on a person's attitude or behavior can be a part of his/her reference groups.
Members within a social class tend to behave more alike compared to members from two different social classes.
Secondary groups require continuous interaction to be effective and meaningful.
When Mark went to college he had a burning desire to join a social fraternity; for Mark, the fraternity would be a dissociative group.
A person's position in a group is defined in terms of role and status.
Marketers need to be aware of the status-symbol potential of brands because people usually choose products which reflect their role and their actual or desired status in a society.
The behavior people exhibit as they pass through certain life-cycle stages, such as becoming a parent, is largely fixed and does not change over time.
For an employee at an organization, annual appraisal can be considered as a critical life event that impacts his/her consumption behavior.
Whereas economic circumstances can have a profound effect on consumption, occupation does not impact how people spend their money and what they buy.
According to the research conducted by Jennifer Aaker, one of the five traits of a product's brand personality is its physical structure.
Brand personality is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand.
The five brand personality traits identified by Jennifer Aaker are consistently observed regardless of nationality or culture.
A person's personality portrays the "whole person" interacting with his or her environment.
Consumers who experience money constraints are prone to multitasking.
Psychogenic needs arise from the physiological states of tension such as hunger or discomfort.
Sigmund Freud assumed that the psychological forces shaping people's behavior are largely unconscious, and that people cannot fully understand their motivations.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs model, recognition, self-esteem, and status would constitute a person's social needs.
According to Herzberg's two-factor theory, satisfiers will make the major difference as to which brand the customer buys.
Perception depends only on the physical stimuli experienced by the person.
People are more likely to notice stimuli whose deviations are large in relation to the normal size of the stimuli.
Selective attention is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our preconceptions.
Selective retention works to the advantage of strong brands.
Because of selective retention, we are likely to forget about the good points of competing products.
Consistent with the elaboration memory model, consumer brand knowledge in memory can be conceptualized as consisting of a brand node in memory with a variety of linked associations.
Brand associations consist of all brand-related thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand node.
Memory is a very constructive process. This means people do not remember information and events completely and accurately and often remember only bits and pieces that they fill in based on whatever else they know.
Every consumer has to pass through all five stages of the buying process when in a buying situation.
The buying process starts when the buyer decides to or actually enters a store or service provider's facility.
A belief is a person's enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluation, emotional feeling, and action tendency toward some object or idea.
The expectancy-value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate products and services by combining their brand beliefs according to importance.
If a company finds that a consumer has chosen a competitive product over their company's offering, one way to get the consumer back could be by developing a strategy wherein the company "shifts the buyer's ideals" on one or more levels.
With noncompensatory models of consumer choice, positive and negative attribute considerations usually net out.
Volvo has the reputation for being one of the most "safe" cars on the road. For those that value safety, Volvo would be the logical choice. This is an example of the lexicographic heuristic of consumer choice.
When consumers evaluate the risks associated with a purchase, only real risks with a high likelihood of occurrence should be considered.
Psychological risk refers to the threat posed by a product to the physical well-being of a consumer.
With respect to a consumer buying situation that involves variety-seeking behavior, the market leader generally encourages variety seeking by offering lower prices or deals.
Anchoring heuristic comes in to play when consumers base their predictions on the quickness and ease with which a particular example of an outcome comes to mind.
The prospect theory maintains that consumers frame decision alternatives in terms of gains and losses according to a value function.