Chapter 20/21 Flashcards


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Lymphatic System
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1

Lymphatic System

returns fluids that have leaked from the blood vascular system back to the blood

2

Lymphoid organs and tissue

provide the structural basis of the immune system

3

lymphatic vessels, or lymphatics

elaborate networks of drainage vessels that collect the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloostream

4

Lymph

once interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic vessels it is called lymph (lymph means clear water)

5

Lymphatic capillaries

these capillaries weave between the tissue cells and blood capillaries in the loose connective tissues of the body

6

lacteals

specialized lymphatic capillaries that transport absorbed fat from the small intestine to the bloodstream (lact=milk)

7

chyle

(chyle=juice)fatty lymph drains from the fingerlike villi of the intestinal mucosa

8

collecting lymphatic vessels

have the same three tunics as veins, but they have thinner walls and more ineternal valves, and they anastomose more.

9

lymphatic trunks

largest collecting vessels unite to form these, they drain fairly large areas of the body

10

What are the major lymphatic trunks?

lumbar, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular trunks, and the single intestinal trunk

11

Right lymphatic duct

drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax

12

thoracic duck

(much larger than R Lymphatic duct) receives lymph from the rest of the body

13

Cisterna Chyli

that collects lymph from the two large lumbar trunks that drain the lower limbs and from the intestinal trunk that drains the digestive organs

14

Lymphocytes

main warriors of the immune system, arise in red bone marrow

15

What are the two types of Lymphocytes?

T cells and B cells that protect the body against antigens

16

Plasma cells

daughter cells that secrete antibodies into the blood (or other body fluids)

17

Macrophages

these play a crucial role in body protection and the immune response by phagocytizing foreign substances and by helping to activate T cells.

18

Dendritic cells

capture antigens and bring them back to the lymph nodes

19

reticular cells

fibroblast-like cells that produce the reticular fiber stroma

20

Stroma

which is the network that supports the other cell types in lymphoid organs and tissues

21

Reticular connective tissue

dominates all the lymphoid organs except the thymus. largely composed of a type of loos connective tissue

22

Diffuse lymphoid tissue

loose arrangement of lymphoid cells and some reticular fibers

23

Lymphoid follicles (lymphoid nodules)

solid spherical bodies consisting of tightly packed lymphoid cells and reticular fibers

24

germinal centers

proliferating (increase rapidly) B cells predominate, they are lighter-staining

25

Lymph Nodes

which cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. embedded in connective tissue, but there are hundreds of these small organs

26

Lymph nodes in filteration:

as lymph is transported back to the bloodstream the lymph node act as lymph filters.

27

lymph nodes in immune system activation

lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs are strategically located sites where lymphocytes encounter antigens and are activated to mount an attack against them.

28

Trabeculae

connective tissue strands that extend inward to divide the node into a number of compartments

29

What are the two histologically distinct regions of the lymph node?

The cortex and medulla

30

Medullary cords

extend from the cortex in the lymph node and contain B cells, T cells, and plasma cells (macrophages reside on these fibers)

31

Lymph sinuses

large lymph capillaries spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers

32

Afferent Lymphatic vessels

Lymph enters the convex side of a lymph node through a number od afferent lymphatic vessels

33

subcapsular sinus

number of smaller sinuses that cut throug hthe cortex and enter the medulla

34

hilum

the indented region on the concave side

35

Spleen

soft, blood-rich spleen is about the size of a fist and is the largest lymphoid organ

36

What are the 2 components of the spleen?

White pulp, and Red pulp

37

White pulp in the spleen

where immune functions take place, so it is composed mostly of lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers

38

Red Pulp of the spleen

where worn-out red blood cells and bloodborne pathogens are destroyed, contains huge numbers of erythrocytes and the macrophages that engulf them

39

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT)

prtoects the digestive, reproductive, and respitory systems from foreign matter. \ distributed lymphoid tissues strategically located in mucous membranes throuhout the body. - peyer's patches, tonsils, and the appendix

40

4 locations of tonsils:

palatine tonsils (these are what get removed), lingual tonsils (can't be removed), pharyngeal tonsils, tubal tonsils (can't remove these)

41

Peyer's patches

large clusters of lymphoid tissue, structurally similar to the tonsils - found in small intestine

42

appendix

tubular offshoot of the efirst part of the large intestine and contains a high concentration of lymphoid follicles

43

Lymph Sacs

buds from developing veins

44

Thymosin makes what:

T cells and B cells

45

What are the two basic functions of the Lymph nodes?

1. filteration - microphages destroy microorganisms, and debris
2. immune system activation - monitor for antigens and mount an attack against them

46

What are the two main functions of the Lymphatic System?

1. returns intersitial fluid&plasma back to blood
2. filters lymph

47

What is the order that the lymph flows toward the heart?

1. Lymphatic Capillaries
2. Lymphatic Collecting vessels
3. Lymph nodes- filters
4. Trunks and ducts

48

The minivalves of the Lymphatic capillaries function as one-way gates that:

-allow interestitial fluid to enter lymph capillaries
-do NOT allow lymph to escape from the capillary

49

What is the principal lymphoid organ of the body?

Lymph Nodes

50

Where do the Lymph node aggregations occur in the body?

inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions

51

The superficial cortex of the Lymph Node contains:

follicles w/ germinal centers (heavy w/ dividing B cells: prdocue plasma cells)

52

The deep cortex of the Lymph Node houses:

T-cells in transit

53

Lymphatic trunks are formed by what:

the union of the largest collecting ducts

54

Where do fetal erythrocyte produce?

spleen

55

Hassall's corpuscles

structures found in the medulla of the thymus (areas where hormone is produced)

56

What is the first line of defense?

Peyer's patches