Networking Terms

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1

10Base 2

Ethernet LAN
10Mbps
Runs on: coax
Max length: 185 meters
Aka: Thinnet

2

10Base 5

Ethernet LAN
10Mbps
Runs on: coax
Max length: 500 meters
Aka: Thicknet

3

10Base T

Ethernet LAN
10Mbps
Runs on: UTP cable
Max length: 100 meters

4

100Base T

Gigabit over Cat5e UTP
Max data transfer rate: 1000 Mb/s
Uses all four pairs of wires
Max length: 100 meters

5

100BaseTX

Fast Ethernet
802.3u specifies Gigabit Ethernet over Cat 6
Uses only 4 of 8 wires
Max length: 100 meters
Max data transfer rate: 100 Mb/s

6

1000BaseX

IEEE 802.3z Gigabit Ethernet standard <br>Fiber Optic <br><br>[802.3z includes 2&nbsp;Physical Layer specifications for fiber optic media (1000BaseSX, 1000BaseLX), &amp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;for shielded copper media (1000BaseCX)]

7

1000BaseLX

Multimode fiber
Max length: 550 meters
OR
Single- mode fiber
Max length: 5 km
SC or LC connectors

8

1000BaseSX

Uses multimode fiber
Max length: 500 meters
SC or LC connectors

9

1000BaseCX

Gigabit Ethernet
150-Ohm shielded coaxial cable
also known as twinax
DB-9 connectors
Max length: 25 meters

*specifically designed for short cable runs like server-to-server connections

10

AAA

Authentication Authorization and Accounting

A security architecture for distributed systems
Enables control over user permissions

11

ACL

Access Control List

List kept by routers to control access to or from the router for a number of services.

12

ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

13

AES

Advanced Encryption Standard

14

AH

Authentication Header

15

Amplitude

In electrical waves, amplitude is typically expressed in volts.

16

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

17

AM

Amplitude Modulation
Information is conveyed through the amplitude of the carrier signal

18

APIPA

Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing

19

ARIN

American Registry for Internet Numbers

20

ARP

Address Resolution Protocol

The protocol for mapping IP addresses to physical addresses

21

ASP

Application Service Provider

22

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

A broadband transmission system
53-octet packets over a cell-switched network
Speeds up to 2.2 GBps

23

BER

Bit Error Rate

The ratio of received bits that contain errors

24

BERT

Bit-Error Rate Test

25

BGP

Border Gateway Protocol

interdomain routing protocol
Replaces EGP
Exchanges reachability info with other BGP systems
Defined by RFC 1163

26

BGP4

Supports CIDR
Uses route aggregation mechanisms to reduce the size of routing tables

27

BNC

British Naval Connector / Bayonet Niell-Concelman

Bayonet "N" Connector
The locking connector type used in 10Base2 (Thin Ethernet)
Used by 10Base2 for CATV, and other electronic uses

28

BootP

Boot Protocol /Bootstrap Protocol

An IP protocol used by diskless workstations to receive boot information from a boot server

29

BPDU

Bridge Protocol Data Unit

Spanning-Tree Protocol hello packet that is sent out at configurable intervals to exchange information among bridges in the network

30

BRI

Basic Rate Interface

An ISDN service with two bearer channels at 64 KBPS plus a "Data-Link" or control channel at 16 KBPS

31

CARP

Common Address Redundancy Protocol

32

CHAP

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

Security feature supported on lines using PPP encapsulation that prevents unauthorized access

CHAP does not itself prevent unauthorized access, it merely identifies the remote end

33

CRAM-MD5

Challenge-Response Authentication Mechanism / Message Digest 5

34

CIDR

Classless Inter Domain Routing
Technique supported by BGP4 and based on route aggregation

35

CNAME

Canonical Name

36

CSMA/CA

Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance

A Media Access Control (MAC) method in which any node may take control of the network after taking certain steps to insure that the cable is not in use or about to be used by another node

37

CSMA / CD

Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection

Media-access mechanism
Before transmitting data, devices check the channel for a carrier
If 2 devices transmit at once, a collision occurs & is detected by all colliding devices
A collision delays retransmissions from those devices for a random length of time
IEEE 802.3

38

CSU

Channel Service Unit

Digital interface device that connects end-user equipment to the local digital telephone loop

39

CSU/DSU

Often referred to together with DSU, as CSU/DSU

A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device which converts digital data frames from the communication technology used on a LAN into frames appropriate to a WAN and vice versa.

A CSU/DSU is primarily used on both ends of a T-1 or T-3 connection

40

dB

decibels

41

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

42

DLC

Data Link Control

43

DMZ

Demilitarized Zone

44

DNS

Domain Name Service
Domain Name Server
Domain Name System

45

DOCSIS

Data-Over-Cable Service Interface Specification

46

DoS

Denial of Service

47

DDoS

Distributed Denial of Service

48

DSL

Digital Subscriber Line

49

DSSS

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

50

DSU

Data Service Unit

Device used in digital transmission
Adapts the physical interface on a DTE device to a transmission facility such as T1 or E1
Also responsible for functions such as signal timing
Often referred to together with CSU, as CSU/DSU

51

DWDM

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

52

E1

E-Carrier Level 1

Wide-area digital transmission scheme used predominantly in Europe
Carries data at a rate of 2.048 Mbps

53

EAP

Extensible Authentication Protocol

54

EDNS

Extension Mechanisms for DNS

55

EGP

Exterior Gateway Protocol

Internet protocol for exchanging routing information between autonomous systems
Documented in RFC 904
Not to be confused with the general term, "exterior gateway protocol" (EGP is an obsolete protocol that has been replaced by BGP).

56

EIGRP

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

57

EMI

Electromagnetic Interference

Interference by electromagnetic signals
Can cause reduced data integrity and increased error rates on transmission channels

58

ESD

Electrostatic Discharge ·

Discharge of stored static electricity that can damage electronic equipment and impair electrical circuitry, resulting in complete or intermittent failures

59

ESSID

Extended Service Set Identifier

60

ESP

Encapsulated security packets

61

FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface

Specification for 100 MBits/sec. on dual counter-rotating token passing ring
Implemented on fiber optic cabling (ANSI X 3T9.5)
SC, ST or MIC connectors.

FDDI networks are typically used as backbones for WANs to provide data transfer rates up to 100 Mb/s using fiber optic media over large distances.

62

FDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing

information from multiple channels can be allocated bandwidth on a single wire based on frequency

63

FHSS

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

64

FM

Frequency Modulation

In data transmission, a system of signaling in which the data is encoded by varying the frequency of the signal

65

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

Lowest-common-denominator protocol for the point-to-point transfer of text and binary files between IP connected hosts

66

FQDN

Fully Qualified Domain Name
Fully Qualified Distinguished Name

Often distinguished by the use of a terminating dot: host.subdomain.domain.

Includes host name, as well as all enclosing domains

67

GBIC

Gigabit Interface Converter

68

Gbps

Giga bits per second

69

GPG

GNU Privacy Guard

70

HDLC

High-Level Data Link Control

An ISO standard for encapsulation of data on synchronous links

71

HIDS

Host Intrusion Detection System

72

HIPS

Host Intrusion Prevention System

73

HSPA

High Speed Packet Access

74

HSRP

Hot Standby Router Protocol

Provides high network availability and transparent network topology changes.
Creates a Hot Standby router group with a lead router that services all packets sent to the Hot Standby address.
The lead router is monitored by other routers in the group, and if it fails, one of the standby routers inherits the lead position and the Hot Standby group address

75

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol

76

HTTPS

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

77

Hz

Hertz

78

IANA

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

Organization operated under the auspices of the ISOC as a part of the IAB
Delegates authority for IP address-space allocation and domain-name assignment to the NIC and other organizations
Maintains a database of assigned protocol identifiers used in the TCP/IP stack, including autonomous system numbers

79

ICA

Independent Computer Architecture

80

ICANN

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol

81

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol

Network layer Internet protocol that reports errors and provides other information relevant to IP packet processing
Documented in RFC 792.

82

ICS

Internet Connection Sharing

83

IDF

Intermediate Distribution Frame

84

IDS

Intrusion Detection System

85

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Non-profit organization that endeavors to coordinate, synthesize, and promote data networking standards

86

IGMP

Internet Group Multicast Protocol

Used by IP hosts to report their multicast group memberships to an adjacent multicast router

87

IGP

Interior Gateway Protocol

Internet protocol used to exchange routing information within an autonomous systems
Examples of common Internet IGPs include IGRP, OSPF, and RIP

88

IIS

Internet Information Services

89

IKE

Internet Key Exchange

90

IMAP4

Internet Message Access Protocol version 4

91

InterNIC

Internet Network Information Center

Group responsible for the assignment of IP addresses

92

IP

Internet Protocol

The Network Layer protocol in the TCP/IP stack offering a connectionless internetwork service
Provides features for addressing, type-of-service specification, fragmentation and reassembly, and security
Documented in RFC 791

93

IPS

Intrusion Prevention System

94

IPSec

Internet Protocol Security

95

IPv4

Internet Protocol version 4

96

IPv6

Internet Protocol version 6

97

ISAKMP

Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol

Industry-Standard Architecture
16-bit bus used for Intel-based personal computers
See also EISA

98

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

Communication protocol, offered by telephone companies, that permits telephone networks to carry data, voice, and other source traffic.

99

ISP

ISP Internet Service Provider

100

IT

Information Technology

101

IV

Initialization Vector

102

Kbps

Kilobits per second

A unit of measure used to describe the rate of data transmission equal to 1000 bits per second

103

L2F

Layer 2 Forwarding

104

L2TP

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol

105

LACP

Link aggregation control protocol

106

LAN

Local Area Network

A communication infrastructure that supports data and resource sharing within a small area (<2 km diameter) that is completely contained on the premises of a single owner

107

LC

Local Connector

Half the size of their predecessors
Reduce loss of light entering or leaving the cable
Available in single-mode and multimode versions

108

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

109

LEC

Local Exchange Carrier

Entity in an end system
Performs data forwarding, address resolution, and other control functions for a single ES within a single ELAN
Provides a standard LAN service interface to any higher-layer entity that interfaces to the LE
Each LEC is identified by a unique ATM address, and is associated with one or more MAC addresses reachable through that ATM address

110

LED

Light Emitting Diode

Semiconductor device
Emits light produced by converting electrical energy
Hardware device status lights are typically LEDs

111

LLC

Logical Link Control

112

MAC

Media Access Control / Medium Access Control

The method whereby a computing device takes control of the transmission media for the purpose of sending an information packet

113

Mbps

Megabits per second

A unit of measure used to describe the rate of data transmission equal to one millions bits per second.

114

MBps

Megabytes per second

115

MDF

Main Distribution Frame

116

MDI

Media Dependent Interface

117

MDIX

Media Dependent Interface Crossover

118

MIB

Management Information Base

In SNMP, a specification of the data objects and data structures that the Agent is responsible for knowing and reporting to the Console on demand

119

MIMO

Multiple Input, Multiple Output

120

MMF

Multimode Fiber

Contains a single strand of thick fiber core with a glass or plastic cladding surrounding it.
Light rays bounce against the cladding when they travel through the fiber core, allowing multiple signals to pass through the fiber cable simultaneously
The bouncing off the cladding causes signal loss, known as attenuation, because the energy level of a light ray decreases as it transfers heat to cladding. Multimode fiber is primarily used in local area networks.

121

MPLS

Multi-Protocol Label Switching

122

MS-CHAP

Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

123

MT-RJ

Mechanical Transfer-Registered Jack

124

MX

Mail Exchanger

125

NAC

Network Access Control

126

NaaS

Network as a Service

127

NAS

Network Attached Storage

128

NAT

Network Address Translation

129

NCP

Network Control Protocol

130

NetBEUI

Network Basic Input / Output Extended User Interface

131

NetBIOS

Network Basic Input / Output System

API used by applications on an IBM LAN to request services from lower-level network processes
Services may include session establishment and termination, and information transfer

132

NFS

Network File Service

A file meta-language and set of procedure calls to access and manage files
standard on most computers using TCP/IP
Designed by Sun Microsystems
Standard feature of nearly all Unix systems

133

NIC

Network Interface Card

A network adapter on a circuit board
Plugs in to internal bus architecture
used to connect a system to the physical network media.

Some mainboards and most portable computers are equipped with a built-in (onboard) NIC.

NICs are available for different types of network media, the most common today being Ethernet NICs with a RJ-45 socket for UTP/STP cabling and wireless network adapters with an antenna.

The NIC's interface itself is a Physical layer (layer 1) device, the physical address (also known as MAC address) of the adapter as well as the drivers to control the NIC are located at the Data Link layer's MAC sub-layer.

134

NIDS

Network Intrusion Detection System

135

NIPS

Network Intrusion Prevention System nm Nanometer

136

NNTP

Network News Transport Protocol

137

NTP

Network Time Protocol

138

NWLINK

Microsoft IPX/SPX Protocol

139

OCX

OCx Optical Carrier

140

OS

OS Operating Systems

A collection of system software routines that manages all of the peripherals, hardware components, and other computing resources and processes

141

OSI

OSI Open Systems Interconnect

The subset of the ISO that promotes and defines standards for open networking systems

142

OSPF

OSPF Open Shortest Path First

A link state routing protocol for IP

143

OTDR

Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

144

PAP

Password Authentication Protocol

145

PAT

Port Address Translation

146

PC

Personal Computer

147

PDU

Protocol Data Unit

148

PGP

Pretty Good Privacy

149

PKI

Public Key Infrastructure

150

PoE

PoE Power over Ethernet

151

POP3

Post Office Protocol v3

152

POTS

Plain Old Telephone System

153

PPP

PPP Point-to-Point Protocol

A specification for synchronous or asynchronous data communication between two routers or between a computer system and a network

154

PPPoE

Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet

155

PPTP

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

156

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

157

PRI

Primary Rate Interface

158

PVC

Permanent Virtual Circuit

159

QoS

Quality of Service

160

RADIUS

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service

161

RARP

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

A method for workstations to ask a server for their IP address during bootstrap operations

162

RAS

Remote Access Service

163

RDP

Remote Desktop Protocol

164

RFI

Radio Frequency Interface

165

RG

Radio Guide

166

RIP

Routing Internet Protocol

A distance vector routing protocol for IP

167

RJ

Registered Jack

168

RSA

Rivest, Shamir, Adelman

169

RSH

Remote Shell

170

RTP

Real Time Protocol

171

RTSP

Real Time Streaming Protocol

172

RTT

Round Trip Time or Real Transfer Time

The time between transmission of a packet and receipt of its acknowledgment or reply

173

SA

Security Association

174

SC

Standard Connector / Subscriber Connector SCP Secure Copy Protocol

175

SCP

Secure Copy Protocol

176

SDSL

SDSL Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line

177

SFTP

Secure File Transfer Protocol

178

SFP

Small Form-factor Pluggable

179

SIP

Session Initiation Protocol

180

SLIP

Serial Line Internet Protocol

A protocol for carrying IP information over serial links

181

SMF

Single Mode Fiber

A Single Mode Fiber (SMF) optic cable contains a single strand of fiber and allows for only one transmission mode. The small fiber core forces the light to travel in a single direction through the core without bouncing off the cladding. This results in less attenuation and support for higher bandwidths, faster transmissions speeds, and much greater distances than multimode fiber. It is also more expensive.

Particularly suitable for long-distance network, telephony and television broadcast systems.

182

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol · Standard protocol for exchanging mail over TCP/IP networks

183

SNAT

Static Network Address Translation

184

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol SNTP Simple Network Time Protocol · de facto standard for management of networked devices using a simple request-response data retrieval mechanism

185

SOA

Start of Authority

186

SOHO

Small Office Home Office

187

SONET

Synchronous Optical Network

A standard for a worldwide digital network using a common transport

Can run over copper or fiber

188

SPS

Standby Power Supply

189

SSH

Secure Shell

190

SSID

Service Set Identifier

191

SSL

Secure Sockets Layer

192

STP

Sheilded, Twisted Pair

Two-pair wiring medium used in a variety of network implementations

STP cabling has a layer of shielded insulation to reduce EMI

193

STP

Spanning Tree Protocol

194

SVC

Switched Virtual Connection

Virtual circuit that is dynamically established on demand and is torn down when transmission is complete.

Used in situations where data transmission is sporadic

195

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

A Transport and Network Layer Protocol, respectively

196

TA

Terminal Adaptor

197

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

A reliable Transport Layer Protocol for managing IP

Supports re-transmission, sequencing and fragmentation

198

TACACS+ TCP

Terminal Access Control Access Control System+ Transmission Control Protocol

199

TDM

Time Division Multiplexing

Technique in which information from multiple channels can be allocated bandwidth on a single wire, based on pre-assigned time slots

Bandwidth is allocated to each channel regardless of whether the station has data to transmit

200

TDR

Time Domain Reflectometer

Device used to send signals through a network medium to check cable continuity and other attributes

Used to find physical layer network problems

201

Telco

Abbreviation for telephone company

202

TFTP

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

A simplified version of FTP

203

TKIP

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol

204

TLS

Transport Layer Security

205

TTL

Time to Live

206

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

207

UNC

Universal Naming Convention

208

UPS

Uninterruptible Power Supply

An electrical supply system that conditions electrical power for a computer system and will allow continued operating in the event of a power failure

209

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

210

USB

Universal Serial Bus

211

UTP

Unshielded Twisted Pair

212

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network

213

VNC

Virtual Network Connection

214

VoIP

Voice over IP

215

VPN

Virtual Private Network

216

VRRP

VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol VTC Video Teleconference

217

VDSL

Variable Digital Subscriber Line

218

VTP

Virtual Trunk Protocol

219

WAN

Wide Area Network

A network that is created between and among devices separated by large distances (typically in excess of 50 miles)

220

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol / Wireless Access Point

221

WEP

Wired Equivalent Privacy

222

WINS

Window Internet Name Service

223

WLAN

WLAN Wireless Local Area Network

224

WPA

Wi-Fi Protected Access

225

www

World Wide Web

226

XML

eXtensible Markup Language

227

XDSL

Extended Digital Subscriber Line

228

Zeroconf

Zero Configuration

229

Media tester/certifier

There are several types of cable testers, of which some only monitor the electrical signal and others are capable of recognizing errors such as collisions, traffic congestion, error frames, and protocol errors even.

A certifier typically measures frequencies to determine the maximum MHz for a cable.

230

Tone generator

Used to find outer ends of a cable.

Place the tone generator on one end of the cable you want to find the other end of, and use a tracer (or probe) on the other end, or what you believe is the other end.

231

Optical tester

Can be used to find a break or kink in fiber optic cabling.

232

Time Domain Reflectometer

Sends pulses through a cable to detect a break or other inconsistencies.

233

Loopback adapter

a kind of terminator you can connect directly to a NIC, allowing you to configure it with an IP address and simulate as if a network were attached, to test the NIC’s functionality.

234

Digital Volt meter

A very common electrical measurement tool that can be used to track down breaks in the cable and shortage with other cabling or metal.

235

Protocol Analyzers (Sniffers)

Typically a tool implemented in software, which analyzes data packets to determine network problems related to software, clients/servers, network addressing and much more.

236

attenuation

Signal loss

237

Broadcast Domain

All devices in the same broadcast domain will receive broadcast frames originating from any other device within the domain.
Broadcast frames are frames explicitly directed to all nodes in the same network.

Broadcast domains are typically bounded by routers because routers do not forward broadcast frames. Broadcast domains are essentially layer 2 segments, which can be extended or separated by using the appropriate network devices as discussed below.

238

Hubs

multiport repeaters, are used in star/hierarchical networks to connect multiple stations. A hub takes the incoming signal from one port and forwards it to all other ports.

239

Bridges

more intelligent than hubs
operate on the Data Link layer of the OSI model
used to increase network performance by segmenting networks in separate collision domains.

240

Routers

Used to interconnect multiple (sub-)networks and route information between these networks by choosing an optimal path ("route") to the destination. They operate on the Network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model and in contradiction to hubs, bridges, and switches, routers are protocol-aware.

Common use of routers is to connect different type of networks (for example 100BaseTX and ATM, or 100BaseFX and Frame Relay) and to interconnect LANs into a WAN

241

Modems

Modems are used for low-speed long-distance connections over telephone lines. They convert parallel digital data into serial analog data and vice versa. This allows digital devices such as computers to communicate over an analog medium.
A telephone line is connected to the modem using a RJ-11 connector

242

Twinax

150-Ohm shielded coaxial cable