Central Processing - chapter 3 test A&P

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1

Cell

Basic unit of life

2

Cell membrane

Outer covering of a cell

3

Cytoplasm

The lining matter of a cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus

4

Cell nucleus

Functional center of a cell

5

Tissue

Two or more cells that perform a specialist function

6

Four major primary tissues

Epithelial
Connective
Muscular
Nervous

7

Epithelial Tissue

Covers the body's external surface - skin

8

Connective Tissue

Provides support, stores energy, and connects other tissues and parts.

9

Muscular Tissue

Shortens as it contracts and lines the inner walls of organs that contract

10

Nervous Tissue

Tissue of communication

11

Organs

Body part containing two or more tissues that function together for a specific purpose (heart etc)

12

Stomach - Organ

Part of digestive system

13

Skin - Organ

The largest organ of the body

14

Organ system

Group of organs working together - i.e. digestive system

15

Bones in human body

Approx 206

16

Tendons

A cord of fibrous tissue that attaches a muscle to bone

17

Ligament

Band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone

18

Ossification

Bone healing - cartilage is replaced by bone

19

Gliding joint

Allows us to move our head

20

Ball and socket

Shoulder and hip - rounded head and cup

21

Pivot joint

Allows turning in motion i.e. palm of hand

22

Hinge joint

Found in knees and knuckles

23

Synovial fluid

Lubricates joints surfaces

24

Cortical (compact bone)

dense and strong - harder outer surface

25

Cancellous (spongy bone)

Bone filled with marrow

26

PLIF

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion - remove disc tissue pressing on lower spine

27

Skeletal Muscle

Muscle attached to bone by tendons

28

Smooth Muscle

Thin, flat sheets of tissue, also called involuntary. They control breathing

29

Cardiac muscle

Woven mesh fibers that branch through the heart

30

Fasciotomy

Incision in the fibrous membrane covering a muscle

31

Herniorrhapy

Repairing a hernia

32

Rotator cuff repair

Repair to the muscle and ligaments of shoulder joints

33

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Consists of brain and spinal cord

34

Peripheral Nervous System PNS

All nerves outside brain and spinal cord

35

Cerebrum

Largest part of the brain - mental activities and movement

36

Cerebellum

Second largest part of brain - muscle coordination, balance, and posture

37

Brain stem

Controls many automatic functions - breathing, heartbeat etc

38

Eye sclera

White portion of eye

39

Choroid

Middle layer of eye

40

Retina

3rd layer of eye

41

Middle ear bones

Malleus
Incus
Stapes

42

Tongue organ of taste

80 different types of chemical odors and combinations

43

Endocrine system

Responsible for hormone secretion

44

Pituitary Gland

Considered the master gland

45

Thyroid Gland

Helps regulate rate of metabolism

46

Parathyroid Gland

Controls calcium levels

47

Adrenal Gland

Located on top of each kidney

48

Pancreas

Produces insulin and glucagon

49

Chromosomes

23 chromosomes
each egg contains 46 - 23 from mom and 23 from dad

50

Epididymis

Carries sperm from the testes to vas deferens

51

Vas Deferens

Transfers sperm to seminal vesicle

52

Prostate gland

Produces the fluid element in semen

53

Kidneys

Bean shaped organs act to filter waste

54

Liver

Filters blood

55

Skin contains

Sweat glands, hair, nails

56

Pharynx

Air passes through this, crossroads of nose and mouth

57

Larynx

Voice box

58

Small intestines

20-23 feet long

59

Large intestine

5-6 feet long

60

Plasma

55% of blood is.. 92% water and proteins

61

Red Blood cells

Rich in hemoglobin last 120 days

62

Heart pumps...

5 liters of blood