The Skull

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created 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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Skull bones and features
updated 6 years ago by hoovemaa
Grade levels:
College: Third year
Subjects:
human anatomy
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1

cranial bones

surround and protect the brain, 2/3 of the skull

2

facial bones

frame work for the face, 1/3 of the skull

3

sutures

interlocking immovable joints that connect skull bones

4

parietal bones

superior and lateral portions of the skull

5

frontal bone

forehead and superior portion of the orbits/eye socket

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supraorbital margin

upper rim of each orbit

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supraorbital foramen

opening through supraorbital margin

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glabella

smooth area just superior to bridge of nose

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frontal sinuses

air filled pockets within bone, lateral to glabella

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anterior cranial fossa

where anterior portion of brain is

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occipital bone

forms posterior and inferior portion of skul

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external occipital protuberance

knob/bump along midline

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superior nuchal line

extend lateraly from protuberance

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inferior nuchal lines

run horizontally inferior to superior nuchal lines

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posterior cranial fossa

formed internally, contains cerebellum

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foramen magnum

large hole for brainstem

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occipital condyles

lateral to foramen magnum, allows head to rock/nod

18

hypoglossal canal

medial/superior to occipital condyles, passage for hypoglossal nerve

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temporal bones (2 of them)

form portions of lateral and inferior skull

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zygomatic process

alng zygomatic bone, forms zygomatic arch (aka cheekbone)

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external acoustic/auditory meatus

external ear canal

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petrous portion

dense area (resembles mountain ridge)

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jugular foramen

opening for passage of internal jugular vein and cranial canal

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carotid canal

anterior to jugular foramen, for passage of internal carotid artery

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foramen lucerum

jagged opening for vessels/nerve passage

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internal acoustic/auditory meatus

internal opening of ear canal

27

styloid process

needle-like inferior projection for muscle and ligament attachment

28

mastoid process

rounded bump lateral and posterior to styloid process for muscle attachment

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stylomastoid foramen

in between styloid and mastoid processes, for nerve passageway

30

middle cranial fossa

partially formed by temporal bones, contains temporal lobes of brain

31

sphenoid bones

span the skull, can be viewed from all angles

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greater wings

form portion of lateral skull and part of cranial fossa

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lesser wings

form portion of anterior cranial anterior fossa

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sella turcica

saddle portion

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optical canal

anterior to sella turcica, for passage of optic nerve

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superior orbital fissure

slit between greater and lesser wings, for passage of muscle

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foramen rotundum

medial portion of greater wing

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foramen ovale

posterolateral to foramen rotundum

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foramen spinosum

posterlateral to foramen ovale

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ethmoid bone

deep bone to skull, anterior to sphenoid, posterior to nasal bone

41

cribiform plates

horizontal planes on superior surface, full of tiny holes

42

crista galli

superior projection

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perpendicular plate inferior projection

forms superior portion of nasal septum

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superior and middle nasal conchae

curved protrusions, extend medially into nasal cavity

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4 major cranial sutures

coronal, squamous, sagittal, lamboid

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coronal suture

between parietal bones and frontal bones

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squamous suture

between parietal and temporal bones

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sagittal suture

between left and right parietal bones

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lamboid sutures

between parietal and occipital bones

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mandible

lower jaw

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mandible body

horizontal portion

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mandible ramus

vertical portion

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mandible angle

where body and ramus meet

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coronoid process

anterior process of ramus

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condylar proces

posterior process of ramus

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mandible head

enlargement at end of condylar process

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mandibular notch

intermediate to coronoid and condylar process

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mandibular symphasis

fusion of 2 halves of the mandible

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mental protuberance

chin

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mandibular foramen

on medial surface of each ramus

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mental foramen

on anteriolateral portion of body

62

maxillae (2) or maxillary

form upper portion of jaw and central face

63

palatine process

forms anterior portion of the hard palate

64

maxillary sinus

largest of the paranasal sinuses, from orbits to upper teeth roots

65

inferior orbital fissure

slit formed by multiple bones

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infraorbital foramen

opening inferior to the orbit, for nerve passage

67

zygomatic bones

cheek bones

68

nasal bones

bridge of nose

69

lacrimal bones

small bones in medial walls of orbit (where tears form)

70

palatine bones

horizontal plates, form the posterior portion of hard palate

71

vomer

pendent shaped bone, forms inferior portion of nasal septum

72

inferior nasal conchae

thin curved bones in nasal cavity

73

paranasal sinus

lined with mucus membranes to help warm, moisten and filter air
keeps the skull light

74

orbits

cavities that contain eyeballs, muscle, fat and glands

75

what 7 bones form orbits

frontal
sphenoid
zygomatic
maxillary
palatine
lacrimal
ethmoid

76

hyoid bone

U-shaped bone that sits inferior to the curve of the mandible
doesn't articulate to other bone, held in place by ligaments
acts as a base for the tongue