Chapter 3 Transducers - Vocabulary

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1

Aperture

Size of a transducer element (single-element)
Size of a group of elements (array)

2

Apodization

Nonuniform driving of elements in an array to reduce grating lobes

3

Array

A transducer assembly containing several piezoelectric elements

4

Axial

In the direction of the transducer axis (sound travel direction

5

Axial resolution

The minimum reflector separation along the sound path that is required to produce separate echoes.

6

Beam

Region containing continuous wave sound; region through which a sound pulse propagates

7

Composite

Combination of a piezoelectric polymer.

8

Convex Array

curved linear array

9

Crystal

Element

10

Currie Point

Temperature at which an element material loses its piezoelectric properties.

11

Damping

Material attached to the rear face of a transducer element to reduce pulse duration; the process of pulse duration reduction.

12

Detail Resolution

The ability to image fine detail and to distinguish closely spaced reflectors

13

Disk

a thin flat circular object

14

Dynamic Aperture

Aperture that increases with increasing focal length to maintain focal width

15

Dynamic Focusing

Continuously variable reception focusing that follows the increasing depth of the transmitted pulse as it travels

16

Element

The piezoelectric

17

Elevational Resolution

The detail resolution in the direction perpendicular to the scan plane. It is equal to the section thickness and it the source of section thickness artifact.

18

Far Zone

The region of a sound beam in which the beam diameter increases as the distance from the transducer increases.

Far field

19

Focal Length

Distance for a focused transducer to the center of a focal region or to the location of the spatial peak intensity

20

Focal Region

Region of minimum beam diameter and area.

21

Focal Zone

length of the focal region

22

Focus

The concentration of the sound beam into a smaller beam area than would exist otherwise.

23

Grating Lobes

Additional weaker beams of sound traveling out in directions different from the primary beam as a result of the multielement structure of transducer arrays

24

Lateral

perpendicular to the direction of sound travel.

25

Lateral Resolution

Minimum reflector separation perpendicular to the sound path that is required to produce separate echoes.

26

Lead Zirconate Titanate

A ceramic piezoelectric material.

27

Lens

A curved material that focuses a sound or light beam

28

Linear

line

29

Linear Array

array made up of rectangular elements arranged in a line

30

Linear Phased Array

Linear array operated by applying voltage pulses to all elements, but with small time differences (phasing) to direct ultrasound pulses out in various directions.

31

Linear sequenced Array

Linear array operated by applying voltage pulses to groups of elements sequentially.

32

Matching Layer

Material attached to the front face of a transducer element to reduce the reflections at the transducer surface.

33

Natural Focus

the narrowing of a sound beam that occurs with an unfocused flat transducer element

34

Near Zone

The region of a sound beam in which the beam diameter decreases as the distance from the transducer increases.

near field

35

Operating Frequency

Preferred (maximum efficiency) frequency of operation of a transducer

36

Phased Array

An array that steers and focuses the beam electronically (with short time delays)

37

Phased Linear Array

Linear sequences array with phased focusing added; linear sequenced array with phased steering of pulses to produce a parallelogram-shaped display.

38

Piezoelectricity

Conversion of pressure to electric voltage

39

Probe

transducer assembly

40

Resolution

The ability to distinguish echoes in terms of space, time, or strength (called detail, temporal, and contrast resolution.)

41

Resonance Frequency

operating frequency

42

Scanhead

transducer assembly

43

Sector

A geometric figure bounded by two radii and the arc of the circle included between them.

44

Sensitivety

Ability of an imaging system to detect weak echoes

45

Side Lobes

Weaker beams of sound traveling out from a single element in directions different from those of the primary beam

46

Sound Beam

The region of a medium that contains virtually all of the sound produced by transducer

47

Source

An emitter of ultrasound; transducer

48

Transducer

A device that converts energy from one form to another

49

Transducer Assembly

transducer elements with damping and matching materials assembled in a case.

50

Ultrasound Transducer

A device that converts electric energy to ultrasound energy, and vice versa

51

Vector Array

Linear sequenced array that emits pulses from different starting points and (by phasing) in different directions