Bone and Skeletal System

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created 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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Bone and skeletal structure
Grade levels:
College: Second year, College: Third year
Subjects:
human anatomy
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1

2 ways caritlage grows

oppositional and interstitial

2

oppositional bone growth

grows from the outside, chondroblast produce new tissue by secreting matrix

3

interstitial bone growth

bone grows from within, chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix

4

bone is made of what? (5)

bone, nervous tissue, blood tissue, cartilage, and epithelial tissue

5

bone functions (5)

support, movement, protection, mineral storage, blood cell formation and energy storage

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types of bone cells (4)

osteogenesis, osteoblasts, osteocytes, oseteoclasts

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osteogensis cells

stem cells that differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts, start cell growth

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osteoblasts cells

bone forming cells

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osteocyte cells

mature bone cells

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osteoclast cells

cells that reabsorb or break down bone tissue

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types of bones (shape)

long, short, flat, irregular

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long bones

named for shape not size, longer than they are wide, ie most limbs and appendages

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short bones

cube-ish shaped, ie ankle and wrist

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sesamoid bones

short bones that grow within a tendon, ie patella

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flat bones

thin, flat, usually curved, ie cranial, ribs, sternum, scapula

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irregular bones

miscellaneous bones, ie vertebrae and pelvis

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2 types of bones

compact and spongy

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spongy bone structure

network of small pieces called trabeculae, spaces between trabeculae are filled with marrow

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osteons

groups of cylinders to help resist stress

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lamella

where osteons are

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central canal/haversion canal

runs through core of each osteon, has blood vessels and nerves

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perforating canal

at right angles to central canals and connect blood and nerve supply of periosteum to that of the central canals

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diaphysis

bone shaft

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epiphysis

bone ends

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epiphyseal line

indicates lack of growth plate

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vessels

main vessels are nutrient artery and nutrient vein entering via nutrient foramen

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medullary cavity

area in center of the diaphysis with no spongy bone, filled with marrow

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periosteum membrane

covering on the outer surface of the bone, not where articular cartilage is

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endosteum membrane

covers the internal bone surfaces (trabeculae)

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bone processes

structures that stick out, usually for muscle/ligament attachment

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tuberosity

large round projection

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crest

ridge

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trochanter

large blunt projection

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line

narrow ridge of bone

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tubercle

small rounded projection

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epicondyle

porjection above a condyle

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spine

sharp slender projection

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articular surfaces

where bone comes into contact with another bone

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head

bony expansion

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neck

narrow area distal to head

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facet

smooth surface

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condyle

rounded projection

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foramen

round or oval opening

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groove

furrow

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fissure

narrow slit

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notch

indentation

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fossa

shallow depression

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meatus

canal

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sinus

cavity within bone

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simple fracture

bone breaks but doesn't break the skin

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compound

bone breaks and pierces the skin

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comminuted

bone breaks into small pieces

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compression

bone is crushed

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spiral

caused by excessive twisting, common in sports injury

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epyphyseal

epiphysis separates from diaphysis along epiphysial plate

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depressed

bone portion is pressed inward, common of cranial injuries

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greenstick or buckle fracture

bone doesn't break completely, common in children

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hematoma formation

blood vessels break, release blood clots

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fibrocartilage callus formation

new vessels enter the fracture area, soft callus forms, then is replaced by dense connective tissue-fibrocartilaginous callus

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bony callus formation

bony tissue fills the fracture area, hard callus is formed

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bone remodeling

bony callus is remodeled, excess bone is removed and repaired area looks like unbroken bone

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osteoporosis

tissue breaks down faster than it can be produced, compact bone is thinner, spongy bone has fewer trabeculae, bones are more porous and weaker

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osteomalacia

bones inadequately mineralized in adults, bones are soft and weak,

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rickets

bones inadequately mineralized in children

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cause of rickets/osteomalacia

vitamin D or calcium phosphate deficency

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osteosarcoma

bone cancer
common in children
usually affects long bones
tumors erode medullary cavity and compact bone