The Eye

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created 5 years ago by shadysmainlady
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updated 5 years ago by shadysmainlady
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1

What helps us process info contained in visual light?

The eye

2

Vision involves the transduction of light into _________ ___________.

Action potentials

3

How much of the cerebral cortex is involved in processing visual info?

About half

4

What percentage of all sensory receptors are in the eye?

70%

5

What does the eye do with the light it collects?

Converts them into nerve impulses

6

How much of the eye is actually visible?

1/6th

7

How long ago did proto-eyes evolve?

600 million years ago

8

what are the 2 shared genetic features in all eyes?

Pax6 gene and photo receptive proteins known as Opsins

9

What are the 2 common disorders associated with the Pax6 mutation?

Aniridia - absence of the iris.
Peter's Anomaly - thinning and clouding of the corneas

10

What are the 7 accessory structures of the eye?

Eyelids, eyebrow, eyelashes, glands, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus and extrinsic eye muscles

11

What is another word for eyebrows?

Supercilium

12

What is another word for eyelids?

Palpebrae

13

What is a palpebral fissure?

The space between the upper and lower eyelids

14

What is the supporting connective tissue where the muscles that open and close the eyelids insert?

Tarsal plates

15

Which eye accessory accomplishes the following: line the supraorbital arches, shade eye from sunlight, prevent perspiration from reaching the eye communication and expression

The supercilium

16

What is another term for the eyelashes?

Cilia

17

Which eye accessory protects the eyes anteriorly from debris?

The palpebrae

18

Which eye accessory lines the palpebral margins, and contain the root hair plexus which triggers the blinking effect?

The cilia

19

Describe blepharitis

-Chronic inflammation of the eyelid and eyelid margin
-Continuous burning, itching, light sensitivity and heaviness of lids
-Dandruff, crusting and cysts at margin

20

What's the treatment for blepharitis?

-Routine eyelid hygiene
- Topical antibiotic and anti-inflammatory applications

21

What's Trichiasis?

Normal eyelashes that are misdirected and rub against the surface of the eye causing watery, irritated, red eyes.

22

What is the treatment for Trichiasis?

-Electrolysis of individual lashes
-More involved focal cryotherapy of lid

23

Which structure connects the eyelids at the corner of the eye?

The medial and lateral canthus

24

Where is the lacrimal caruncle located?

Within the medial canthi

25

What are the small openings in the medial corners of the eyes that receive tears called?

Superior and inferior puncta

26

Which part of the eye contains glands that produce thick secretions (sleep)?

The lacrimal caruncle

27

Which eye glands secrete a lipid rich product that keeps the eyelids from sticking together and is located along the inner margin of the eyelids?

The tarsal glands

28

Describe the ciliary glands

They are modified sweat glands located between the hair follicles

29

What is the job of the lacrimal glands?

To produce tears

30

Where are the lacrimal glands located?

At the superior lateral portion of the eye

31

Name the two kinds of conjunctiva

Palpebral and bulbar (ocular)

32

What is the epithelial lining of the eyelids called?

The Palpebral conjunctiva

33

What is the palpebral conjunctiva that folds back on itself and lines the white surface of the eye?

Bulbar (ocular) conjunctiva

34

Where is the lacrimal gland?

Above the lateral end of the eye

35

What is lacrimal secretion?

Tears

36

Wht are the 4 sections that tears flow into?

The lacrimal puncta, the caniculi, the sac and the naolacrimal duct

37

How do you end up with a "runny nose" when crying?

When you tear up, tears flow across your eye and through the nasolacrimal canal into your nose

38

What does NLDO stand for?

Nasalacrimal duct obstruction

39

What are the 2 muscles of the eyelid?

Levator palpebrae superioris and the obicularis oris

40

What is the function of the obicularis oris?

To close the eyelid

41

What is the function of the levator palpebrae superioris?

Lifts the eyelid and opens the eye

42

List the 6 extrinsic eye muscles

Lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, Inferior oblique and superior oblique.

43

Which eye muscle rotates the eye laterally?

The lateral rectus

44

Which eye muscle rotates the eye upward?

The superior rectus

45

Which eye muscle rotates the eye muscle downward?

The inferior rectus

46

Which eye muscle rotates the eye medially?

The medial rectus

47

Which eye muscle rotate the eye upward and laterally?

The inferior oblique

48

Which eye muscle rotates the eye downward and laterally?

The superior oblique

49

Moves eye laterally

Lateral rectus

50

Moves eye medially

Medial rectus

51

Elevates eye and rotates it medially

Superior rectus

52

Depresses eye and rotates it medially

Inferior rectus

53

Elevates eye and rotates it laterally

Inferior oblique

54

Depresses eye and rotates eye laterally

Superior oblique