A&P chapter 2

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chemical level
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1

An atom with a mass number of 18 that contains 10 neutrons would have an atomic number of ___

8

2

Matter exists in three forms:

solids, liquids, gases

3

The building blocks of carbohydrates are the monomers ______ while the building blocks of proteins are the monomers _______

monosaccharides
amino acids

4

T/F
The elements that compose most of the body's mass are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

True

5

T/F
Ionic bonds are created when atoms lose, gain or share electrons in the valence shell

False
Ionic: lose or gain
Covalent: share

6

T/F
Human blood has a normal pH between 7.35 and 7.45 and is considered slightly alkaline

True

7

Which of the following would be considered a compound?
C6H12O6
O2
Fe
H2
CH4

C6H12O6 and CH4
*compound is a combination of atoms of 2 or more different elements!!

8

The monosaccharides glucose and fructose combine to form the disaccharide sucrose by a process known as

dehydration synthesis

9

Which of the following is not a function of proteins?

store energy

10

Which of the following organic compounds are classified as lipids?
1. polysaccharides
2. triglycerides
3. steroids
4. enzymes
5. eicosanoids

2, 3, 5
poly: carbohydrates
enzymes: proteins

11

A compound dissociates in water and forms a cation other than H+ and an anion other than OH-. This substance most likely is:
acid
base
enzyme
buffer
salt

salt

12

Which statements are TRUE regarding ATP?
1. ATP is the energy currency for the cell
2. The energy supplied by the hydrolysis of ATP is constantly being used by cells
3. Energy is req'd to produce ATP
4. The production of ATP involves both aerobic and anaerobic phases.
5. The process of producing energy in the form of ATP is termed the law of conservation of energy

1, 2, 3 and 4
5- The law of conservation of energy states that energy is not created or destroyed, it merely changes form

13

During the course of analyzing a chemical, a chemist determines that the chemical is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the proportion 1 C to 2 H to 1 O. Chemical is probably:

a monosaccharide

14

An abundant polar covalent molecule that serves as a solvent, has a high heat capacity, creates high surface tension, and serves as a lubricant:

water

15

a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions

acid

16

a substance that dissociates into cations and anions, neither of which is a hydrogen ion or hydroxyl ion

salt

17

a proton acceptor

base

18

a measure of hydrogen ion concentration

pH

19

a chemical compound that can convert strong acids and bases into weak ones

buffer

20

a catalyst for chemical reactions that is specific, efficient and under cellular control

enzyme

21

a single-stranded compound that contains a five-carbon sugar, and the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil

RNA

22

a compound that functions to temporarily store and then transfer energy liberated in exergonic reactions to cellular activities that require energy

ATP

23

a double stranded compound that contains a five-sugar carbon, the bases adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine and the body's genetic material

DNA

24

a charged atom

ion

25

a charged atom with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell

free radical