Study Guide Microbiology

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Tina123
752 views
Chapter 1,3,4,5 Self test
updated 6 years ago by Tina123
Grade levels:
College: Second year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

In 1668, demonstrated that maggots appeared only in decaying meat that had been exposed to flies.
a. Redi
b. Pasteur
c. Hooke

a. Redi

2

Introduced the concept that living cells arise from other living cells.
a. Pateur
b. Needham
c. Virchow

c. Virchow

3

Introduced the technique of vaccination for smallpox.
a.Lister
b. Jenner
c. Lister

b. Jenner

4

First to use the microscope to observe "cells"
a.Leeuweenhoek
b. Redi
c. Hooke

c. Hooke

5

Made an association between silkworm disease and a fungus.
a. Bassi
b. Lister
c. Linnaeus

a. Bassi

6

A surgeon who used carbolic acid to control wound infections.
a. Koch
b. Lister
c. Fleming

b. Lister

7

First to speculate about the possibility of a "magic bullet" that would destroy a pathogen without harming the host
a. Spallanzani
b. Linnaeus
c. Ehrlich

c. Ehrlich

8

Discovered penicillin.
a. Fleming
b. Bassi
c. Jenner

a. Fleming

9

Using anthrax as a model, demonstrated that a specific microorganism is the cause of a specific disease.
a. Lister
b.Koch
c.Ehrlich

b. Koch

10

Originated our system of scientific nomenclature.
a.Hooke
b. Linnaeus
c. Virchow

b. Linnaeus

11

Assigned a microbial cause to fermentation.
a. Pasteur
b. Stanley
c. Crick

a. Pasteur

12

First to crystallize a virus.
a. Pasteur
b. Stanley
c. Crick

b. Stanley

13

Showed that mild heating of spirits killed spoilage bacteria without damage to the beverage.
a. Pasteur
b. Stanley
c. Crick

a. Pasteur

14

Devised a classification system for the streptococci based on an immunological system of serotype.
a. Crick
b. Koch
c. Lancefield

c. Lancefield

15

Demonstrated that infections in obstetrical wards could be minimized by disinfecting the hands of physicians.
a. Lancefield
b. Crick
C. Semmelweis

c. Sammelweis

16

Participated in determining the structure of DNA.
a. Crick
b. Koch
c. Stanley

a. Crick

17

First demonstrated that genetic information could be exchanged between bacteria by conjugation.
a. Beadle
b. Lederberge
c. lancefielf

b. Lederberg

18

Prokaryotes
a. Fungi
b. Bacteria
c. Viruses

b. Bacteria

19

Non-cellular, reproduce only inside cells of host organism.
a. viruses
b. Prion
c. Fungi

b. Viruses

20

Helminths
a. viruses
b. Multicellular animal parasites
c. Elephants

b. Multicellular animal parasites

21

Yeasts
a. Protozoa
b. Elephants
c. Fungi

c. Fungi

22

An infectious protein
d. Bacteria
e. viruses
c. prion

c. prion

23

Unicellular Eukaryotic microorganisms; members of Kingdom Protista
a. protozoa
c. fungi
b. bacteria

a. protozoa

24

Protection from a disease that is provided by vaccination
a. Fermintaition
b. Aseptic
c. Immunity

c. Immuninty

25

The use of chemical substance to treat a disease.
a. Bio-remediation
b. Chemotherapy
c. Fermentation

b. chemotherapy

26

The use of microbes to clean up, for example, and oil spill
a. aseptic
b. Immunity
c. bioremediation

c. bioremediation

27

The process by which yeasts change sugar into alcohol.
a. Fermentation
b. Bioremediation
c. Bacillus

a. fermentation

28

Techniques that keep areas free of unwanted microorganisms.
a. fermentation
b. aseptic
c. Immunity

b. aseptic

29

Photosynthetic bacteria; may fix nitrogen from air.
a. cyanobacteria
b. coccus
c. bacillus

a. cyanobacteria

30

Photosynthetic eukaryotes.

d. Protozoa
e. archaea
f. algae

f. algae

31

Eukaryotes classified primarily by their means of locomotion

d. Protozoa
e. archaea
f. algae

d. protozoa

32

General name for a rod-shaped bacterium
a. cyanobacteria
b. coccus
c. bacillus

c. bacillus

33

General name for a spherical bacterium.
a. cyanobacteria
b. coccus
c. bacillus

b. coccus

34

Prokaryotes whose call walls lack peptidoglycan and are often found in extreme enviroments.

d. Protozoa
e. archaea
f. algae

e. archaea

35

Bacteria generally reproduce by a process called _________ into two equal daughter cells

binary fission

36

The set of criteria that prove that a specific microorganism is the cause of a specific disease is known today as _______________.

Koch's postulates

37

The concept that living cells can arise only from other living cells is called _________.

biogenesis

38

Responding to experiments in which nutrient fluids were heated in sealed containers, proponents of spontaneous generation objected that heating destroyed some ______in the air.

vital force

39

According to the rules applied to the scientific naming of a biological organism, the _________ name is always capitalized.

genus

40

Paul Ehrlich discovered an arsenic derivative, _______________, that was effective against syphilis.

salvarsan

41

Antimicrobial chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi are called _______________.

antibiotics

42

The penicillin-producing mold that Fleming discovered was named Peniciilium _____________; later it was renamed P. chrysogenum.

notatum

43

Bacteria usually exist in nature not as single cells but as aggregations of cells called a(n) ________________.

biofilm

44

The electrons pass through a thin section of the specimen.
a. Compound light microscope
b. Scanning electron microscope
c. Phase-contrast microscope
d. Transmission electron microscope

d. Transmission electron microscope

45

Visible light passes through the specimen; uses separate objective and ocular lenses.
a. Compound light microscope
b. Scanning electron microscope
c. Phase-contrast microscope

a. Compound light microscope

46

Details become visible because of differences in the refractive index of different parts of the cell.
a. Compound light microscope
b. Scanning electron microscope
c. Phase-contrast microscope

c. Phase-contrast microscope

47

Visible light is scattered after striking the specimen, and the specimen is visible against a darkened background.

e. Fluorescence microscope
f. Darkfield microscope
g. Two-photon microscopy
h. Confocal microscopy

f. Darkfield microscope

48

a special microscope using ultraviolet illumination.

e. Fluorescence microscope
f. Darkfield microscope
g. Two-photon microscopy
h. Confocal microscopy

e. Fluorescence microscope

49

The electrons strike the surface of the specimen, and secondary electrons leaving the surface are viewed on a television-like screen.
a. Compound light microscope
b. Scanning electron microscope
c. Phase-contrast microscope

b. Scanning electron microscope

50

Makes use of relatively low-energy red light to excite fluorochromes; can track cellular activity in real time.
e. Fluorescence microscope
f. Darkfield microscope
g. Two-photon microscopy
h. Confocal microscopy

h. Confocal microscopy

51

Pertaining to the relative velocities of light through a substance.

d. Resolving power
e. refractive index
f. immersion oil
g. immunofluorescence

e. refractive index

52

Involves the use of antibodies and ultraviolet light.

e. refractive index
f. immersion oil
g. immunofluorescence

g. immunofluorescence

53

One-millionth of a meter.
a. Micrometer
b. Nanometer
c. Angstrom
d. Resolving power
e. refractive index
f. immersion oil
g. immunofluorescence

a. Micrometer

54

One ten-billionth of a meter.
a. Micrometer
b. Nanometer
c. Angstrom

c. Angstrom

55

The ability to separate two points in a microscope field.
d. Resolving power
e. refractive index
f. immersion oil
g. immunofluorescence

d. Resolving power

56

Adhere(s) best to bacteria, which have a negative charge, because the color molecule has a positive charge.
a. basic dye
b. acidic dyes
c. gram stain

a. basic dye

57

Used in diagnosis of tuberculosis
d. acid-fast stain
e. capsule stain
f. endospore stain

d. acid-fast stain

58

Involve(s) the use of a negative stain made from India ink particles.
d. acid-fast stain
e. capsule stain
f. endospore stain

e. capsule stain

59

Schaeffer-Fulton stain
d. acid-fast stain
e. capsule stain
f. endospore stain

f. endospore stain

60

Use(s) carbolfuchsin dye
d. acid-fast stain
e. capsule stain
f. endospore stain

d. acid-fast stain

61

Use(s) malachite green
d. acid-fast stain
e. capsule stain
f. endospore stain

f. endospore stain

62

Reflect(s) a basic difference between microbial cell walls; ethanol will not remove stain from bacteria.
a. basic dye
b. acidic dyes
c. gram stain

c. gram stain

63

A Microscope that uses laser illumination.
a. confocal
b. phase-contrast
c. darkfield

a. confocal

64

Extremely thin microbes, for example, the spirochete Trponema pallidum, are best seen with this type of light microscope.
a. confocal
b. phase-contrast
c. darkfield

c. darkfield

65

This type of electron microscope yields images with seemingly three-dimensional views of the specimen.
d. transmission
e. scanning
f. scanning acoustic

e. scanning

66

Light rays that pass through different portions of the specimen reach the eye with their was peaks reinforced or cancelled, making structures of the specimen relatively light or dark.
a. confocal
b. phase-contrast
c. darkfield

b. phase-contrast

67

A microscope that uses sound waves to form an image.
d. transmission
e. scanning
f. scanning acoustic

f. scanning acoustic

68

Formerly known as a micron.
a. micrometer
b. nanometer
c. angstrom
d. millimeter

a. micrometer

69

Formerly known as a millimicron.
a. micrometer
b. nanometer
c. angstrom
d. millimeter

b. nanometer

70

This is 10 to the negative tenth power of a meter
a. micrometer
b. nanometer
c. angstrom
d. millimeter

c. angstrom

71

A billionth of a meter
a. micrometer
b. nanometer
c. angstrom
d. millimeter

b. nanometer

72

Helical; move by flagella, if present.
g. cocci
h. spirilla
i. diplococci
j. coccobacilli

h. spirilla

73

Spherical; in chains.
a. Sarcinae
b. tetrads
c. streptococci
d. spirochetes

c. streptococci

74

Divide in three regular planes; spheres form cubelike packets.
a. Sarcinae
b. tetrads
c. streptococci

a. Sarcinae

75

Helical; axial filaments for motility.
a. Sarcinae
b. tetrads
c. streptococci
d. spirochetes

d. spirochetes

76

A simple, commalike curve.
c. streptococci
d. spirochetes
e. vibrios
f. bacilli
g. cocci

e. vibrios

77

Name means "little staff"
f. bacilli
g. cocci
h. spirilla
i. diplococci
j. coccobacilli

f. bacilli

78

Ovals
h. spirilla
i. diplococci
j. coccobacilli

j. coccobacilli

79

Golgi complex.
a. eukaryotic cell
b. prokaryotic cell

a. eukaryotic cell

80

Meiosis occurs in reproduction.
a. eukaryotic cell
b. prokaryotic cell

a. eukaryotic cell

81

Usually single circular chromosome without histones.
a. eukaryotic cell
b. prokaryotic cell

b. prokaryotic cell

82

Sterols generally present in cell membrane.
a. eukaryotic cell
b. prokaryotic cell

a. eukaryotic cell

83

Cell wall almost always contains peptidoglycans.
a. eukaryotic cell
b. prokaryotic cell

b. prokaryotic cell

84

Nucleus bounded by a membrane.
a. eukaryotic cell
b. prokaryotic cell

a. eukaryotic cell

85

DNA contained in a nucleoid.
a. eukaryotic cell
b. prokaryotic cell

b. prokaryotic cell

86

Contain pigments for photosynthesis by bacteria; found in the plasma membrane.
i. chromatophores
j. chloroplasts
k. magnetosomes

i. chromatophores

87

Gram-negative bacterial cells after their treatment with lysozyme.
g. Spheroplasts
h protoplasts
i. chromatophores
j. chloroplasts

g. Spheroplasts

88

Specialized external structures that assist in the transfer of genetic material between cells.
a. glycocalyx
b. flagellin
c. fimbriae
d. sex pili

d. sex pili

89

Numerous short, hairlike appendages that help in attachment to mucous membranes.
a. glycocalyx
b. flagellin
c. fimbriae
d. sex pili

c. fimbriae

90

General terms for substances surrounding bacterial cells.
a. glycocalyx
b. flagellin
c. fimbriae

a. glycocalyx

91

Polysaccharides found in the cell wall of many gram-positive bacteria.
c. fimbriae
d. sex pili
e. capsules
f. teichoic acids

f. teichoic acids

92

Inclusions of iron oxide.
i. chromatophores
j. chloroplasts
k. magnetosomes

k. magnetosomes

93

Metachromatic granules of stored phosphate in prokaryotes.
a. volutin
b. plasmids
c. cristae

a. volutin

94

Entrance of fluids and dissolved substances into eukaryotic cells.
i. phagocytosis
j. pinocytosis
k. cytoplasmic streaming
l. mycolic acid

j. pinocytosis

95

Membrane-enclosed spheres in phagocytic cells that contain powerful digestive enzymes.
f. nucleoplasm
g. lysosomes
h. mitochondria
i. phagocytosis

g. lysosomes

96

The "powerhouse" of the cell.
g. lysosomes
h. mitochondria
i. phagocytosis
j. pinocytosis

h. mitochondria

97

a gel-like fluid found in the eukaryotic nucleus.
e. ribosomes
f. nucleoplasm
g. lysosomes
h. mitochondria

f. nucleoplasm

98

a folded inner membrane found in mitochondria.
a. volutin
b. plasmids
c. cristae

c. cristae

99

Sometimes contributes to movement of a cell.
j. pinocytosis
k. cytoplasmic streaming
l. mycolic acid

k. cytoplasmic streaming

100

Found in the walls of acid-fast bacteria.
i. phagocytosis
j. pinocytosis
k. cytoplasmic streaming
l. mycolic acid

l. mycolic acid

101

Arrangement of flagella distributed over the entire cell.
e. hook
f. peritrichous
g. amohitrichous
h. lophtrichous

f. peritrichous

102

Flagella at both poles of the cell.
f. peritrichous
g. amohitrichous
h. lophtrichous
i. monotrichous

g. amohitrichous

103

A widening at the base of the flagellar filament.
c. chitin
d. lysozyme
e. hook
f. peritrichous

e. hook

104

An enzyme affecting gram-positive cell walls; found in tears.
a. Exocytosis
b. Dipicolinic acid
c. chitin
d. lysozyme

d. lysozyme

105

A compound found in bacterial endospores.
a. Exocytosis
b. Dipicolinic acid
c. chitin
d. lysozyme

b. Dipicolinic acid

106

A compound frequently found in the cell walls of yeasts.
a. Exocytosis
b. Dipicolinic acid
c. chitin
d. lysozyme

c. chitin

107

No flagella.

i. monotrichous
j. atrichous
k. grappling hook model
l. flagellin

j. atrichous

108

A tuft of flagella at one pole of the cell.

h. lophtrichous
i. monotrichous
j. atrichous
k. grappling hook model
l. flagellin

h. lophtrichous

109

Twitching motility.
i. monotrichous
j. atrichous
k. grappling hook model
l. flagellin

k. grappling hook model

110

Closely involved in protein synthesis.
a. Phospholipid bilayer
b. transverse septum
c. microtubules
d. ribosomes

d. ribosomes

111

Structure(s) characteristic of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic plasma membranes.
a. Phospholipid bilayer
b. transverse septum
c. microtubules
d. ribosomes

a. Phospholipid bilayer

112

Found in the flagella and cilia of eukaryotic cells
a. Phospholipid bilayer
b. transverse septum
c. microtubules
d. ribosomes

c. microtubules

113

Highly resistant bodies formed by a few bacterial species.
a. plasmids
b. endospores
c. pseudomurein
d. metrix
e. pleomorphic

b. endospores

114

Small circular DNA molecules that are not connected with the main chromosomes.
a. plasmids
b. endospores
c. pseudomurein
d. metrix
e. pleomorphic

a. plasmids

115

The semifluid center portion of the mitochondrion.
a. plasmids
b. endospores
c. pseudomurein
d. metrix
e. pleomorphic

d. metrix

116

A substance similar to peptidoglycan that is found in the cell wall of archaea.
a. plasmids
b. endospores
c. pseudomurein
d. metrix
e. pleomorphic

c. pseudomurein

117

Bacteria with irregular morphology.
a. plasmids
b. endospores
c. pseudomurein
d. metrix
e. pleomorphic

e. pleomorphic

118

Extracellular polymeric substances on some bacterial cells; may help cells adhere to surfaces.
a. glycocalyx
b. pilin
c. gram-positive
d. gram-negative
e. contrioles
f. L form

a. glycocalyx

119

Bacterial cell with thin peptidoglycan layer, outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide.
a. glycocalyx
b. pilin
c. gram-positive
d. gram-negative
e. contrioles
f. L form

d. gram-negative

120

Protein that forms fimbriae.
a. glycocalyx
b. pilin
c. gram-positive
d. gram-negative
e. contrioles
f. L form

b. pilin

121

Bundles of microtubules that probably play a role in cell division of eukaryotic cells.
a. glycocalyx
b. pilin
c. gram-positive
d. gram-negative
e. contrioles
f. L form

e. contrioles

122

Bacteria that have lost their cell walls and may later spontaneously regain them.
a. glycocalyx
b. pilin
c. gram-positive
d. gram-negative
e. contrioles
f. L form

f. L form

123

Lipid A and O polysaccharide are found on this type of bacteria.
a. glycocalyx
b. pilin
c. gram-positive
d. gram-negative
e. contrioles
f. L form

d. gram-negative

124

Er associated with ribosomes.
a. septum
b. forespore
c. rough ER
d. smooth ER
e basal body

c. Rough ER

125

Ingrowth of plasma membrane before endospore formation.
a. septum
b. forespore
c. rough ER
d. smooth ER
e basal body

a. septum

126

Anchors the flagella of bacteria to the cell wall and plasma membrane.
a. septum
b. forespore
c. rough ER
d. smooth ER
e basal body

e. basal body

127

chemically the capsule is a(n) ________________, a polypeptide, or both

polysaccharide

128

Capsules protect pathogenic bacteria from _________, a process by which protective host cells engulf and destroy microorganisms.

phagocytosis

129

The Golgi complex consists of flattened sacs called ________ that are connected to the endoplasmic reticulum

cisterns

130

The ________ means a lower concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside.

hypotonic

131

The ______ complex consists of four to eight flattened that are connected to the endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi