Unit 2: Chemistry of Life Flashcards


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Chemistry of Life, Chemical Bonds, Water, Carbon and Life
updated 5 years ago by hstiles
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biology
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1

Atom

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Tiny particle that is the fundamental building block of all substances.

2

Proton

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Particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Has positive charge.

3

Neutron

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Particle in the nucleus of an atom. Has no charge.

4

Electron

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part of atom with a negative charge; orbits the nucleus.

5

Matter

Anything that takes up space and has mass.

6

Element

Substance that contains only 1 kind of atom and cannot be broken down to simpler substances.

7

Ion

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Atom that has a positive or negative charge.

8

Molecule

Compound resulting from covalent bonding between atoms.

9

Covalent Bond

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Bond between atoms where electrons are shared.

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Ionic Bond

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Bond formed by an attraction between atoms of opposite charges.

11

Hydrogen bond

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Bond formed by an attraction between partially charged atoms and a hydrogen that is covalently bonded to another partially charged atom.

12

Organic Compound

Any compound that contains carbon bonded to at least one other atom, usually hydrogen.

13

Inorganic Compound

Compound without carbon-hydrogen bonds

14

Valence electrons

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Electrons in an atom's outer layer. Electrons involved in bonding between atoms.

15

Polarity or Polar Molecule

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Molecule which has positive and negative regions resulting from unequal sharing of electrons in a polar covalent bond.

16

Cohesion

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Attraction of molecules between the same substance. ex: water molecule attracted to other water molecule

17

Adhesion

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Attraction between molecules of different substances.
ex: water molecule attracted to molecules that make up spider web.

18

Solute

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Substance that dissolves in a solvent.

19

Solvent

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Substance in which something is dissolved.

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Solution

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Mixture of where solute is dissolved in a solvent.

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Versatile Solvent or Universal Solvent

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Water can dissolve most substances making it a versatile solvent. This is due to its polarity which attracts anything with a charge.

22

Surface tension

Force that hold molecules together on the surface of a liquid.

23

Specific Heat

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The amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.

Water has a high specific heat so it takes lots of energy to raise the temperature - due to hydrogen bonds in water.

24

Capillary Action

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The ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, and in opposition to, external forces like gravity (flows against gravity).

Occurs because water is sticky - due to forces of adhesion and cohesion.

25

pH

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Measures how acidic or basic a substance is. Ranges from 1-14 with 0 being most acidic and 14 being most basic.

26

Macromolecules

Large molecules. Macromolecules found in all living things: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids.

27

Carbohydrates

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Macromolecules that are energy storage molecules. Contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

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Lipids

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Macromolecules that are fats or oils (triglycerides), phospholipids, steroids, and waxes.

29

Proteins

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Macromolecules made up of amino acids. Makes up many parts of your body.

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Nucleic Acids

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Macromolecules which are the genetic material - DNA and RNA.

31

Electronmagnetic

physical force that is responsible for interactions between charged particles.