exam 2 chapter 13

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by kcruzer
647 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Components of a bacteriophage (4)

1. icosahedral
2. DNA
3. Tail fibers
4. base plate

2

diploid cell cultures and continuous cell cultures differ in

longevity and source of cells

3

prisons are different because they lack

nucleic acids

4

in virus taxonomy, some virus families are derived from the name of

an important member in the family

5

Prusiner discovered

prions

6

Lytic Replication cycle:
earliest to latest (5)

Attachment, Entry, Synthesis, Assembly, Release

7

majority of cases of infant diarrhea are caused by _______ virus

dsRNA

8

zones of clearing cell cultures which are a result of virus infection are called _________ which are infected with ___________, which might be caused by a _________ viral infection

plaques, bacteriophage, lysogenic

9

lipid membrane is present in both ______ and _____

cells, viruses

10

double stranded RNA genomes can be found only in ________

viruses

11

(3) are associated with the attachment of a bacteriophage to a bacterial cell

1. random collisions
2. chemical attractions
3. receptor specificity

12

many diseases of plants are caused by infectious RNA molecules lacking ____

capsids

13

most viruses cannot be seen by ___________ microscope

light

14

during ____, viruses remain dormant in a cell

latency

15

viruses are shed slowly and steadily during _________ infection

persistent

16

virus replication results in the ____ of the cell in a lytic

death

17

cytoplasm is a characteristic of ________ only

cells

18

proteins are present in both _________ and _________

cells, viruses

19

(2) membranes that can give rise to a viral envelope

nuclear and cytoplasmic membrane

20

host specificity of a virus is due to interactions between _______ and _______ surface molecules

viral, cellular

21

tumors invade other organs and tissues through process called

metastasis

22

the phenomenon of transduction is associated with

assembly

23

the outermost layer of a virion fulfills (2)

protection and recognition

24

scientist- was the first person to demonstrate the existence of viruses

Ivanowsky

25

double stranded DNA genomes are found in

both cells and viruses

26

T/F
viroids have protein in their structure

FALSE, they viroids do not have protein in their structure

27

________ is a mechanism of release for enveloped viruses

budding

28

viroids infect ________

plants

29

acelluar-

disease causing agents

30

Acellular lack _______,
cannot __________, _________, _______ to their environment

lack CELL STRUCTURE
cannot METABOLIZE, REPRODUCE, GROW
RESPOND to their environment

31

Acellular includes (3)

viruses, viroids, prions

32

Virus-

tiny infectious agent

33

virus has a _______ which is surrounded by a proteinaceous ________ that form a coat called _______

virus has a NUCLEIC ACID, which is surrounded by a proteinaceous CAPSOMERE, that forms a coat called a CAPSID

34

virus can be ______ extracellular state and intracellular state

both

35

virion is a complete _________ which includes a _____ and a ________ outside of the cell

viral particle
includes a nucleic acid and a capsid

36

the genomes of viruses include either

DNA or RNA

37

primary source of genomes classification

DNA or RNA

38

what is a virus that infects a bacterial cell?

bacteriophage (phage)

39

virions can have a membranous _______ or be naked w/o

envelope

40

the outermost layer of a virion fulfills _____ and _______ functions of the virus

protection, recognition

41

viruses are classified based on (4)

1. presence of an envelope
2. nucleic acid
3. shape
4. size

42

viruses depend on random contact with a _______ for replication

specific host cell type

43

Lytic Replication Cycle (5) stages

1. attachment
2. entry
3. synthesis
4. assembly
5. release

44

once attachment has been made between virion and host cell:
with phages only the ________ enters the host cell.
With animal viruses the ___________ virion often enters the cell

nucleic acid, entire virion

45

removal of capsid is a process called

uncoating

46

within the host cell, the viral nucleic acid directs _________ of more viruses using _______ and _____ of the host cell

synthesis, enzymes and ribosomes

47

assembly of synthesized virions occur in the

host cell

48

when virions are released from the host cell either called _____ of the host cell or by extrusion of envelope virions through host cytoplasmic membrane called _______

lysis, budding

49

what is it called when bacteriophages enter a bacterial cell and remain inactive?

temperate (lysogenic)

50

inactive phages are called

prophages

51

___________ results when phages carry genes that alter the phenotype of a bacterium

lysogenic conversion

52

process where an animal virus remains inactive in a cell

latency

53

latent virus is also known as a

provirus

54

with the exception of B virus, ______ viruses act like cellular DNA in transcription and replication

dsDNA

55

retroviruses are

+ssRNA viruses that carry an enzyme reverse transcriptase

56

_______ is uncontrolled cellular reproduction in a multicellular animal

neoplasia

57

tumor is harmless

benign

58

tumor is invasive//cancerous

malignant

59

term that describes the spreading of malignant tumors and invading other organs and tissues

metastasis

60

viruses must be cultured inside whole organisms in chicken eggs or cell cultures because viruses cannot

metabolize or replicate ALONE

61

when a mixture of bacteria is grown on an agar plate, bacteria infected w phages lyse, producing clear areas are called

plaques

62

a technique called _______ enables the estimation of phage numbers

plaque assay

63

viruses can be grown into 2 types of cell cultures

diploid cell cultures, continuous cell cultures

64

diploid cell cultures last

about 100 generations

65

continuous cell cultures which are derived from ____ cells last __________

cancer cells, last longer

66

viroids were discovered in _______ (year)

1971

67

viroids are

small circular pieces of RNA with no capsid that infects and cause disease in plants

68

similar pathogenic molecules are known as

fungi

69

prions

are infectious protein particles that lack nucleic acids and replicate by converting similar normal proteins into new prions

70

disease caused by prions are

bovine spongiform encephalopathies

71

disease by prions involve fatal

neurological degeneration, Kuru, Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, scrapie

72

term
UV light or x rays can induce conversion of prophage back to lytic phage

lysogeny

73

viruses are (size)

miniscule nanometers in size

74

_______ cause most diseases that plagues the world

viruses

75

extracellular has a _________ which is a protein coat surrounding nucleic acid

varion

76

intracellular: virus exists as a ________
non enveloped or enveloped?

nucleic acid
non enveloped

77

what is the primary way scientists categorize and classify viruses?

genetic material

78

capsid is composed of proteinaceous subunits called

capsomeres

79

Replication of animal viruses-
DNA viruses often _________
RNA viruses often ___________

DNA- often enter the nucleus
RNA- often replicate in the cytoplasm

80

Environmental factors that contribute to activation of oncogenes (4)

1. uv light
2. radiation
3. carcinogens
4. viruses

81

viruses cause _____ (%) of human cancers

20-25%

82

viroids are extremely _______ (size)
(shape) __________
of (DNA or RNA) ____________

small, circular, RNA