Ch 1 Microbiology

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1

Leeuwehoek

-invented the 1st lens called microscope.
-called microbes animalcules

2

Pasteur

-invented pasteurization
-disproved spontaneous generation
-founder of microbiology

3

semmelweiss

-disproved spontaneous generation
-demonstrated hand washing decreased infection.

4

Flemming

discovered antibiotic pennicillin

5

redi (fransico)

first to challenge spontaneous generations
demostrated that maggots come from eggs of flies
described details of many parasites

6

Woese

-organized classification of microorganisms
-discovered life's 3rd domain

7

Lister

-father of antiseptic surgery
-using phenol as antiseptic

8

robert Koch

founder of modern bacteriology
developed ways of staining bacteria to improve bacteria's visibility under the microscope
able to identify the bacterial cause of tuberculosis and cholera

9

Jenner

invented small pox vaccine

10

Hooke

discovered cell theory

11

Virchow

developed concept of bio genesis stating all life must arise from something living.

12

spontaneous generation

living things came from non-living things like decomposing matter

13

germ theory

human disease can arise from infection

14

biogenesis

living things can only come from other living things

15

pathogenic

producing disease

16

binary fision

when bacteria divides in two equal parts

17

golden age of microbiology

1857-1914
most pathogenic bacteria were identified

18

nomenclature

naming of microorganism
1st genus (capitalized)
2nd species (lowercase)
EX: Escherichia Coli First set is genus second is species

19

Microorganism play a role in

-disease
-biodegradation
-cheese production
-nitrogen recycling

20

endospores

heat resistant forms of bacteria

21

pathogens

can cause disease

22

bacteria shapes

coccus(spherical), bacillus (rod), sprial

23

algae and protozoa is also referred to as

protists

24

helminths

roundworms and tapeworms

25

virus

-contain both protein and nucleic acid
-infect all domains of life
-acellular
-need a living cell or host to replicate
-no cell wall and no cell membrane
-cannot be cured by medicine, sometimes vaccine helps
-obligate intracellular parasites ****

26

bacteria

unicellular, prokaryotic
reproduce by binary fision
photosynthetic or chemosynthetic
cell wall of peptidogycan
no nuclear membrane but has genetic material residing in region called nucleoid

27

Neucleotides are associated with

genetic information

28

which disease was once thought to be due to stress but is now a cause of bacterium

peptic ulcer

29

prokaryotes typically do not have

a cell membrane

30

the prokaryotes of the microbial world include

bacteria and archaea

31

Archaea

are microscopic and are found in extreme enviornments
are unicellular, prokaryotic, cell walls not of peptidoglycan.

32

Fungi

unicellular (yeast) multicellular (mold- can be seen w/o microscopes)
cell walls of chitin
reproduce sexually and asexually
deigest decaying matter or organic compounds such as food (live off dead matter)

33

protozoa

unicellular, eukaryotic, no cells walls, classified by movement (motility).
reproduce sexually and asexually

34

Algae

unicellular and multicellular
eukaryotic
cell walls of cellulose
photosynthesis(use sunlight for energy)
produce oxygen and organic compounds
live in water

35

parts of viruses

viroids (single, short RNA molecule)
Prions (consist of only protein)

36

The property of endospores that led to confusion in the experiments of spontaneous generation is their:

heat resistance

37

Cellulose is a major component of plants and is only directly digested by

microorganisms

38

microorganisms are involved in

-causing disease
-treating disease
-preparing food
-cleaning up pollutants

39

Viruses, viroids and prions are obligate intracellular agents true or false

true

40

which are single celled and multicellular

algae and fungi

41

viruses can only be grown in

a living cell

42

multicellular

many cells, very complex, can be seen by human eyes
ex. we are made of multicellular cells, humans, birds, animals, bugs

43

unicellular

single cell, made of one cell, very simple cells, cannot be seen by human eyes
ex: bacteria, archaea, protozoa, algae, fungi

44

acellular

(a)=without.. acellular=no cell
ex: virus, viroids, prion

45

ex of prokaryotic cells

bacteria, archaea

46

ex of eukaryotic cells

fungi, algae, protozoa, helminth

47

ex of bacteria

E coli, anthrax, semolina, MRSA

48

ex of fungi

yeast, mold, mushroom

49

ex of protozoa

maleria, plasmodia, amoeba

50

ex of viruses

HIV, common cold, influenza

51

ex of viroids

common in plants, humans can catch similar

52

ex of prions

mad cow disease, kuru

53

prokaryotic cells

single cell organism, have no membrane enclosed organelles, only one membrane surrounding entire cell

54

eukaryotic cells

have membrane enclosed organelles, nucleus, multicellular and unicellular organisms

55

according to cell theory

living things are made of cell and accellular organisms are not living

56

give 2 reasons why it took so long to disprove spontaneous generation

1. heat resistant spores were present in some broths.
2. some stoppers (corks) used to seal flasks were not effective.

57

what experiment disproved the notion that a vital force in air was responsible for spontaneous generation?

Pasteur's experiment showing that sterile medium in swan necked flasks open to the air would remain sterile indefinitely if they were not tipped.

58

what conclusions could Tyndall reach on the properties of the agent that entered the broth from hay

they were not killed by heating and they were not visible to the naked eye

59

describe two microbial activities essential to life and 3 that make our lives comfortable

1.converting nitrogen in usable form
2. photosynthetic replenishing oxygen

1.fermentation of dairy products
2. degrading environmental pollutants
3. creation of antibiotics

60

describe 3 reasons why some diseases re emerge

1. reproduction of vaccination against certain diseases
2. diseases under control by antimicrobial medications become resistant to medications
3. the aging population is more susceptible to infectious diseases

61

why would it seem logical, even inevitable, that at least some bacteria would attack the human body and cause disease

the human body is an ecological location that provides many of the requirements that bacteria require to grow. Organisms that have the ability to invade our cells or damage our tissues have access to additional nutrients.

62

Name one feature that distinguishes members of bacteria from the archaea

bacteria contain the usual compound peptidoglycan in their cell wall whereas the archaea dont

63

list 2 features that distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes

1. prokaryotes have no true nucleus, eukayotes do
2. prokaryotes dont have membrane bounded internal structures

64

describe chemical compositionn of viruses, viroids and prions

viruses- consist of a protein coat surrounding either DNA or RNA
viroids- consist only of RNA
prions- consist only of protein

65

Which of the non living members of the microbial world seems to be least threat to human health

viroids have not been shown to cause human disease and prions are responsible rarely for diseases in human.

66

arrange from smallest to largest

viruses, bacteria, eukaryotic cells

67

what factors limits the size of free living cells

free living organisms must have the necessary equipment to sustain life, including all of the required macro molecules.. they must be large enough to contain these macromolecules

68

How did louis Pasteur help disprove spontaneous generation

Pasteur demonstrated that swan necked flasks containing sterile growth medium would remain sterile indefinitely if the bend in the flask did not come in contact with the medium

69

Gvie 3 reasons why life could not exist without the activities of microorganisms

1. Nitrogen would not be available in a form that humans and plants could use
2. The supply of Oxygen would be depleted after about 20 years if microorganisms were not available to replenish it.
3. A wide variety of materials would pile up if microorganisms were not present to degrade them.

70

List 5 benefical applications of bacteria

1. Their role in food and beverage production
2. Role in pollutant degradation
3. Synthesis of cmmercially valuable products
4. Their importance in synthesizing medically imp products following genetic modification
5. Their importance as model organisms for the study of universal biological processes

71

State 3 reasons why there is a resurgence of infectious diseases today

1. Aging population is more susceptible to disease
2. Organisms controlled by antimicrobial medications have become resistant to the medication
3. children are not being routinely vaccinated against many disease

72

Name the prokaryotic group

Bacterial and Archaea

73

Archaea are found where

extreme conditions such as hot springs of yellowstone national park

74

why are viruses not microorganism

viruses dont have all the machinery necessary to live and so they must use that of a host cell in order to replicate.

75

The property of endospores that led to confusionn in the experiments on spontaneous generation is their:

1. small size
2. ability to pass through cork stoppers
3. heat resistance
4. presence in all infusions
5. presence on cotton plugs

76

The golden age of microbiology was the time when:

most pathogonic bacterial were identified