Anatomy and Physiology 1 (5th Edition) CHPT. 2

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1

Describe MATTER and the states in which it exists:

Matter is made of ATOMS, ALL things are made of matter!!

States of matter : Solid, liquid, gas

2

Definition of CHEMICAL ELEMENT:

is a pure chemical substance consisting of a single type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its atomic nucleus.

3

Name the FOUR ELEMENTS that form the Bulk of the body.

(CHON) CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN

4

Define ATOM:

What are the subatomic particles, and describe their relative masses, and positions in the atom.

card image

Smallest unit of an element, composed of a nucleus.

SUBATOMIC PARTICLES: Protons, Neutrons and Electrons.

All elements are made out of 2 parts nucleus and an electron cloud

5

Define Molecule:

Distinguish between a COMPOUND and a MIXTURE:

Compare SOLUTIONS, COLLOIDS AND SUSPENSIONS:

A combination of TWO OR MORE ATOMS held together by chemical bonds.

TWO OR MORE different ATOMS BIND they form molecules of a COMPOUND. (ex. H2O, CH4)(Not H or O, cause there is only one atom)

SOLUTIONS(MIXTURES): two or more COMPONENTS PHYSICALLY INTERMIXED.
*HOMOGENIOUS MIXTURE W/ SOLUTE (usually solid) and SOLVENT (liquid)(same composition of make-up through out)
*Most Nutrients, wastes, pH, etc, in solution in plasma of blood or extracellular fluid
*HETEROGENIOUS MIXTURE: ***Colloids (cytoplasm)and Suspensions (blood)

COLLOID- where stuff doesn't move (like jello), SUSPENSIONS-Solute Particles are large, if you don't keep it moving they will sink to the bottom(blood/plasma). SOLUTION- particles are very tiny and do not settle out or scatter light (mineral water)

6

Differentiate between IONIC and COVALENT bonds.

Contrast THESE BONDS with HYDROGEN BONDS.

IONIC: atoms donate electrons to create ions that are then attracted to one another to form molecules (NaCl or Sodium Chloride)

COVALENT: Atoms share electrons between atoms to form molecules

POLAR: unequal sharing of electrons that creates positively and negatively charged ends to a molecule. Water is a common polar compound, also phosphates in cell membrane

NONPOLAR: evenly shared electrons; CO2, hydrocarbons in cell membrane

HYDROGEN BONDING: Hydrogen atoms are attracted to the negative end of another polar covalent molecule; "rungs" of DNA molecule.

7

Compare and contrast POLAR an NONPOLAR Compounds.

POLAR: unequal sharing of electrons that creates positively and negatively charged ends to a molecule. Water is a common polar compound, also phosphates in cell membrane

NONPOLAR: evenly shared electrons; CO2, hydrocarbons in cell membrane

8

Define the three major types of chemical reactions: SYNTHESIS, DECOMPOSITION and EXCHANGE REACTIONS.

SYNTHESIS: A + B ->AB An ANABOLIC REACTION found in rapidly growing tissues. (put together)

DECOMPOSITION: AB ->A + B a CATABOLIC REACTION (break apart) (Ex. Glycogen and Glucose)

EXCHANGE: AB + C -> AC + B, AB + CD -> AC + BD
Oxidation-reduction Reactions

9

Explain the importance of WATER and SALTS to body HOMEOSTASIS.

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