Ch. 1 Microbial World

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microbiology
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1

photosynthesis, aiding in digestion, therapeutic drugs

ways in which microorganisms affect our lives

2

established microbiological nomenclature

Carlos Linneaus

3

simple, single celled organisms

bacteria

4

Greek for prenucleus

prokaryote

5

3 common shapes of bacteria

bacillus, coccus, spiral

6

2 uncommon shapes of bacteria

star-shaped, square

7

composition of bacterial cell walls

peptidoglycan

8

reproduction method of bacteria

binary fission

9

Name 3 ways bacteria derive nutrition

organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, photosynthesis

10

cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan

archaea

11

name 3 types of archaea

methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles

12

most typical form of fungi

mold

13

reproduction may be sexual or asexual

fungi

14

Movement may be by flagella, pseudopods, or cilia

protozoa

15

live in freshwater, salt water, in soil or in plants

algae

16

acellular structures that can only be seen with an electrom microscope

viruses

17

What are the 3 domains

Bacteria, Eurkarya, Archaea

18

developed the 'cell theory'

Robert Hooke

19

theory that all living things are composed of cells

cell theory

20

saw little boxes through a microscope and called them cells

Robert Hooke

21

observed first live organisms through a microscope and described them as animacules

Anton Von Leeuwenhoek

22

Theory that states some forms of life can arise from non-living matter

spontaneous generation

23

opposed the theory of spontaneous generation

Francisco Redi

24

performed an experiment with decaying meat showing life did not arise from unlife

Francisco Redi

25

Theory that living cells can only arise from preexisting living cells

Theory of Biogenesis

26

demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions

Louis Pasteur

27

Techniques that prevent contaminiation by unwanted sources

Asceptic techniques

28

Claimed microorganisms developed spontaneously from fluids

Needham

29

opposed to spnntaneous generation. countered Needham's experiments

Spallanzani

30

Claimed living cells only arise from pre-existing cells

Virchow

31

Theory that living cells only arise from pre-existing cells

biogenesis

32

Showed that microorganisms can be resent in non-living matter

Pasteur

33

Process developed by Pasteur to solve spoilage problems of beer and wine.

pasteurization

34

theory that microorganisms may cause disease

germ theory of disease

35

used phenol (carbolic acid) solutions to treat surgical woundds

Joseph Lister

36

developed first proof that bacteria cause disease

Koch

37

discovered Bacillus anthracis

Koch

38

sequence of steps relating a specific microbe to a specific disease

Koch's postulates

39

treatment of disease using chemical substances

chemotherapy

40

chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against microorganisms

antibiotics

41

chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in labs

synthetic drugs

42

searched for a magic bullet to hunt and destroy a pathogen

Erlich

43

developed chemotherapeutic agent from an arsenic derivative as an effective agent agaist syphillis

Salvarson

44

synthetic drug extracted from the bark of a South American tree used to treat malaria

quinine

45

the study of bacteria

bacteriology

46

the study of fungi

mycology

47

study of protozoa and parasitic worms

parasitology

48

study of immunity

immunology

49

study of viruses

virology

50

showed that human or animal DNA can be attached ot bacterial DNA

Berg

51

Study of how genetic information is carried in molecules of DNA

Molecular Biology

52

mechanism by which microorganisms inherit traits

microbial genetics

53

study of relationship between microorganisms and their environment

Microbial Ecology

54

the use of microbes to clean up pollutants and toxic waste produced by various industrial processes

bioremediation

55

product used in powder (dust) to control pests in corps

bacterium Bacillus thuringnenesis

56

process of inserting a missing gene or replicating a defective gene in a human cell

gene therapy

57

standard microorganism on or inside our bodies

normal microbiota

58

a complex aggregation of microbes that attaches to each other and/or unusually solid structure

biofilm

59

disease in which pathogens infect a susceptible host

infectious disease

60

carried by birds. killed millios of poultry

H5N1 avian influenza

61

inflammation of the brain by virus carried by birds and transmitted between birds (and to horses and humans) via mosquitos

West Nile Encephalitis

62

an infectious protein

prion

63

disease whose source is cattle fed feed prepared from sheep ofal

bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)

64

leading cause of diarrhea

E. coli

65

process whereby yeasts in the absence of air convert sugars to alcohol

fermentation