A&P Chapter 2

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1

What is a mixture?

Mixtures are 2 or more components physically intermixed

2

What is a homogeneous solution?

homogeneous Solution - same composition throughout

3

What is a solvent?

Solvent
(1) substance in the greatest amount
(2) usually liquid
(3) main one in the body: water

4

What is a solute?

Solute: present in smaller amounts

5

what is a true solution?

True solution
(1) contain gases, liquids, or solids dissolved in water
(2) usually transparent
(3) solutes are minute(not visible to naked eye and do not settle out)

6

What is a Colloids/emulsions mixture?

Colloids/emulsions
a. heterogeneous: composition dissimilar in different areas in the mixture
b. often appear translucent or milky
c. solute particles do not settle out but are larger than in true solutions
d. some change reversibly from fluid (sol) state to more solid (gel) state = sol-gel transformations

7

What is a Suspension mixture?

Suspensions
a. heterogeneous mixtures
b. large, often visible solutes
c. solutes tend to settle out

8

Does more hydrogen ions, H+, make a solution more acidic or basic (alkaline)?

acidic

9

Does more hydroxyl ions,OH- , make a solution more acidic or basic (alkaline)?

basic (alkaline

10

Relative concentration of H+ measured in what units?

pH units

11

pH Scale is measured by logarithmic. What does logarithmic mean?

(1) each change = tenfold change in H+

12

What is the pH Scale rang of numbers of the scale?

0-14

13

What are Carbohydrates?

sugars and starches

14

What are monosaccharides carbohydrates?

a. simple sugars
b. building blocks (monomers) of other carbohydrates

15

What is the most important monosaccharides carbohydrates?

most important: glucose

16

What is a disaccharides carbohydrates? What are the common examples?

a two monosaccharides joined

examples:
(1) sucrose – table sugar
(2) lactose – found in milk
(3) maltose – malt sugar

17

What is a Polysaccharides carbohydrates? What are some characteristics of them?

a long chains (polymers) of simple sugars linked together

large molecules, fairly insoluble,ideal storage products

18

How are carbohydrates stored in animal? Plants?

animals: glycogen
plants: starch

19

What is the functions of carbohydrates?

provide ready, easily used source of energy but small amounts used for structural uses

20

What do Lipids contain?

C,O,H

21

Are lipids soluble or insoluble in water?

insoluble in water

22

What are the four characteristics of Triglycerides (Neutral fats)?

- fat (solid) vs. oils (liquid)
- provide most efficient and compact form for storing energy
- nonpolar- do not mix with water - insoluble

23

Where are Triglycerides (Neutral fats) mostly found in the body? What does it do for the body?

d. found mainly beneath the skin
(1) insulate deeper tissues form heat loss
(2) protect deeper tissues form trauma

24

What are Triglycerides (Neutral fats)made of?

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Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

25

What are the different parts Phospholipids? Are the polar or nonpolar?

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- “tail” – nonpolar
- “head” - polar
- main material in cell membrane

26

Are Steroids (lipids) soluble or insoluble in water?

fat soluble – water insoluble

27

What is the most important steroid to the body? Where is it found? What is it the raw material for synthesis of?

- cholesterol
- found in cell membranes
raw material for synthesis of:
- Vitamin D
- Steroid hormones

28

How much of a cell's mass is Proteins?

10-30% of cell mass

29

What are the main roles of Proteins?

Main roles:
- Basic structural material of the body
- Important in cell function
* Most varied functions of all body molecules

30

What are Amino acids?

building blocks of proteins

31

How many different kinds of amino acids are there?

20 amino acids

32

What are amino acids made of?

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two functional groups:
(1) amine group (-NH2)
(2) acid group (-COOH)
R group: makes each amino acid unique

33

What determians the activity of a protein?

its 3D structure

34

What happens when a protein is denatured?

- protein unfolds
- loses its 3D shape
- loses its function
- disruption can be reversible

35

What do enzymes do for proteins? How does it affect the activation energy?

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act as catalysts
-speed up / regulate a reaction
-cannot force chemical reaction
-lowers the activation energy

36

Are enzymes chemically specific?

yes

37

How much of each enzyme is need in a cell and why?

Cells need only small amount of each enzyme Because they cannot force chemical reactions and can be reused.

38

What are Nucleic Acids composed of?

C, O, H, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus

39

What are nucleotides?

Structural units of Nucleic Acids

40

What are the three things that make up nucleotides? What are the specifics for DNA? For RNA?

(1) nitrogen containing base
- DNA: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T)
- RNA: A, G, C, and Uracil (U)
(2) Pentose sugar
- deoxyribose (DNA)
- ribose (RNA)
(3) Phosphate group

41

What is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)? Where is it found?

- constitutes genetic material (genes)
- found in nucleus

42

What are the roles of DNA?

(1) replicates itself before a cell divides
(2) provides basic instructions for building proteins

43

What is the shape of DNA?

Double helix

44

What are the DNA complementary base pairing?

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A-T
C-G

45

Where is RNA (ribonucleic acid) located?

located mainly outside of nucleus

46

What does RNA (ribonucleic acid) do?

carries out orders for protein synthesis

47

What are the three major types of RNA (ribonucleic acid)?

three major types:
(1) messenger RNA, mRNA
(2) ribosomal RNA, rRNS
(3) transfer RNA, tRNA

48

What are the RNA (ribonucleic acid) complementary base pairing?

A-U
G-C

49

What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?

The primary energy-transferring molecule

50

What does Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) do?

Provides form of energy immediately usable by all cells

51

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is an unstable energy-storing molecule. Why is this unstable?

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Because the 3 like charges takes a lot of energy to keep them together