A&P Chapter 2
What is a mixture?
Mixtures are 2 or more components physically intermixed
What is a homogeneous solution?
homogeneous Solution - same composition throughout
What is a solvent?
(1) substance in the greatest amount
(2) usually liquid
(3) main one in the body: water
What is a solute?
Solute: present in smaller amounts
what is a true solution?
(1) contain gases, liquids, or solids dissolved in water
(2) usually transparent
(3) solutes are minute(not visible to naked eye and do not settle out)
What is a Colloids/emulsions mixture?
a. heterogeneous: composition dissimilar in different areas in the mixture
b. often appear translucent or milky
c. solute particles do not settle out but are larger than in true solutions
d. some change reversibly from fluid (sol) state to more solid (gel) state = sol-gel transformations
What is a Suspension mixture?
a. heterogeneous mixtures
b. large, often visible solutes
c. solutes tend to settle out
Does more hydrogen ions, H+, make a solution more acidic or basic (alkaline)?
Does more hydroxyl ions,OH- , make a solution more acidic or basic (alkaline)?
Relative concentration of H+ measured in what units?
pH Scale is measured by logarithmic. What does logarithmic mean?
(1) each change = tenfold change in H+
What is the pH Scale rang of numbers of the scale?
What are Carbohydrates?
sugars and starches
What are monosaccharides carbohydrates?
a. simple sugars
b. building blocks (monomers) of other carbohydrates
What is the most important monosaccharides carbohydrates?
most important: glucose
What is a disaccharides carbohydrates? What are the common examples?
a two monosaccharides joined
(1) sucrose – table sugar
(2) lactose – found in milk
(3) maltose – malt sugar
What is a Polysaccharides carbohydrates? What are some characteristics of them?
a long chains (polymers) of simple sugars linked together
large molecules, fairly insoluble,ideal storage products
How are carbohydrates stored in animal? Plants?
What is the functions of carbohydrates?
provide ready, easily used source of energy but small amounts used for structural uses
What do Lipids contain?
Are lipids soluble or insoluble in water?
insoluble in water
What are the four characteristics of Triglycerides (Neutral fats)?
- fat (solid) vs. oils (liquid)
- provide most efficient and compact form for storing energy
- nonpolar- do not mix with water - insoluble
Where are Triglycerides (Neutral fats) mostly found in the body? What does it do for the body?
d. found mainly beneath the skin
(1) insulate deeper tissues form heat loss
(2) protect deeper tissues form trauma
What are Triglycerides (Neutral fats)made of?
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
What are the different parts Phospholipids? Are the polar or nonpolar?
- “tail” – nonpolar
- “head” - polar
- main material in cell membrane
Are Steroids (lipids) soluble or insoluble in water?
fat soluble – water insoluble
What is the most important steroid to the body? Where is it found? What is it the raw material for synthesis of?
- found in cell membranes
raw material for synthesis of:
- Vitamin D
- Steroid hormones
How much of a cell's mass is Proteins?
10-30% of cell mass
What are the main roles of Proteins?
- Basic structural material of the body
- Important in cell function
* Most varied functions of all body molecules
What are Amino acids?
building blocks of proteins
How many different kinds of amino acids are there?
20 amino acids
What are amino acids made of?
two functional groups:
(1) amine group (-NH2)
(2) acid group (-COOH)
R group: makes each amino acid unique
What determians the activity of a protein?
its 3D structure
What happens when a protein is denatured?
- protein unfolds
- loses its 3D shape
- loses its function
- disruption can be reversible
What do enzymes do for proteins? How does it affect the activation energy?
act as catalysts
-speed up / regulate a reaction
-cannot force chemical reaction
-lowers the activation energy
Are enzymes chemically specific?
How much of each enzyme is need in a cell and why?
Cells need only small amount of each enzyme Because they cannot force chemical reactions and can be reused.
What are Nucleic Acids composed of?
C, O, H, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus
What are nucleotides?
Structural units of Nucleic Acids
What are the three things that make up nucleotides? What are the specifics for DNA? For RNA?
(1) nitrogen containing base
- DNA: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T)
- RNA: A, G, C, and Uracil (U)
(2) Pentose sugar
- deoxyribose (DNA)
- ribose (RNA)
(3) Phosphate group
What is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)? Where is it found?
- constitutes genetic material (genes)
- found in nucleus
What are the roles of DNA?
(1) replicates itself before a cell divides
(2) provides basic instructions for building proteins
What is the shape of DNA?
What are the DNA complementary base pairing?
Where is RNA (ribonucleic acid) located?
located mainly outside of nucleus
What does RNA (ribonucleic acid) do?
carries out orders for protein synthesis
What are the three major types of RNA (ribonucleic acid)?
three major types:
(1) messenger RNA, mRNA
(2) ribosomal RNA, rRNS
(3) transfer RNA, tRNA
What are the RNA (ribonucleic acid) complementary base pairing?
What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?
The primary energy-transferring molecule
What does Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) do?
Provides form of energy immediately usable by all cells
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is an unstable energy-storing molecule. Why is this unstable?
Because the 3 like charges takes a lot of energy to keep them together