Tissues and the Integumentary System

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by hoovemaa
140 views
Lecture notes 2 Sept 2014
Grade levels:
12th grade, College: Second year, College: Third year
Subjects:
human anatomy
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

4 types of tissue

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

2

epithelial tissue functions

covers body and lines organs, sheets of closely packed cells

3

how are epithelial tissue categorized

number of cell layers and shape

4

epithelial categorization by number (2 types)

simple and stratified

5

epithelial categorized by shape (3 types)

squamous-irregular shape
cuboidal-cube shape
columnar- column shape

6

stratified squamous

regenerate rapidly
covers surface area that are subject to abrasion i.e. esophagus and skin

7

simple squamous

thin and leaky
useful for material exchange by diffusion (lungs and blood vessels)

8

cuboidal/columnar

large cells that make secretory products i.e. digestive tract and air tubes

9

glandular epithelium

produces secretion
exocrine glands-release secretions through ducts onto epithelial surfaces
endocrine glands- release secretions into surrounding fluids; no ducts

10

connective tissue

binds and supports tissue

11

3 fiber types of connective tissue

elastin, reticular, and collagen

12

elastin function

provides resilience

13

reticular function

provides support

14

collagen function

provides strength

15

6 types of connective tissue

loose CT, adipose, fibrous CT, cartilage, bone, blood

16

loose connective tissue structure and function

loose weave of collagen, holds many tissues and organs in place

17

adipose tissue

fat to pad and insulate body
stores energy

18

fibrous connective tissue

densely packed collagen fiber, forms tendons and ligaments

19

cartilage function and structure

strong but flexible material with collagen fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix
found at end of bones, between vertebrae and makes up nose and ears

20

3 types of cartilage

hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

21

hyaline structure

glassy, most common
ie ribs

22

elastic cartilage structure

like hyaline but more flexible
ie auricle of ear

23

fibrocartilage function

tough and strong
i.e. between vertebrae

24

bone

rigid tissue made of collagen fibers embedded in calcium salts
comprise skeleton

25

2 types of bone

compact and spongy

26

compact bone

superficial portion of bone
has blood vessels

27

spongy bone

deep portion of bone
open spaces
no blood vessels

28

blood

fluid matrix
functions to transport and provide immunity
made of blood cells, platelets, and plasma

29

muscle tissue function

allows for movement

30

muscle tissue structure

bundles of long muscle cells (fibers)
most abundant tissue in most mammals
consists of sarcoplasm and sarcolemma

31

sarcoplasm

cytoplasm of muscle cell (fibers)

32

sarcolemma

cell membrane of muscle cells (fibers)

33

3 types of muscle tissue

skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

34

skeletal muscle function

attached to bones by tendons, responsible for movement, striated

35

cardiac muscle

produces involuntary hear contractions, striated

36

smooth muscle

produces involuntary movement in walls of GI tract, urinary bladder, and arteries, unstriated

37

nervous tissue

communication network of the body
relays info regarding internal and external environment from one part of the body to another
consists of neurons

38

neurons

nerve cells specialized to conduct electrical impulses throughout nervous tissue

39

integumentary system

consists of skin and external structures of the body
includes skin, hair, nails, glands, and specialized receptors

40

integumentary system functions (6)

physical protection, thermal regulation, excretion, nutrition, sensation, and immune defense

41

skin function and structure

covers and protects entirety of body
attached to underlying muscle and other organs by loose CT

42

2 layers of the skin

dermis and epidermis

43

epidermis

superficial layer of the skin 4 or 5 layers

44

dermis

deep layer of the skin

45

epidermis layers from deep to superficial

stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum
stratum corneum

46

stratum basale

deepest layer of epidermis
cells reproduce rapidly

47

stratum spinosum

2nd layer from the bottom of epidermis

48

stratum granulosum

layer where skin cells begin to die

49

stratum lucidum

only present in thick skin i.e. bottom of feet and palms

50

stratum corneum

top layer of epidermis
dead, protective, water resistant

51

skin tone differences due to what? (3)

blood supply, carotene, and melanin

52

dermis

thicker than epidermis, made of loose and fibrous CT (collagen and elastic fibers)
blood vessels present to cary oxygen and nutrients to new skin cells and remove CO2
provides tactile sensation

53

2 layers of dermis

papillary and reticular

54

papillary layer of dermis

superficial layer w/dermal ridges projecting into epidermis
gives fingerprints

55

decubitus ulcers (bed sores)

due to a lack of blood flow to an area
prevented by changing positions regularly

56

reticular layer of dermis

deep layer of dermis
consists of fibers surrounding blood vessels, hair follicles, nerves and glands

57

hypodermis/subcutaneous layer of skin

deep to dermis
made of loose CT (mostly adipose)
loose CT allows skin to move independently to underlying structures