Cell

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Cell Structures and Functions
Grade levels:
College: Second year, College: Third year
Subjects:
human anatomy
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1

All Cells have what? (4)

plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, organelles

2

cell membrane structure

phospholipid bilayer w/proteins interspersed throughout

3

cell membrane function

protects cell, acts as gate keeper, is selectively permeable

4

two types of transportation with cells

passive and active

5

passive transportation energy use?

requires no energy from cell

6

active transportation energy use?

requires energy from cell

7

types of passive transportation (3)

diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis

8

types of active transportation (2)

exocytosis and endocytosis

9

exocytosis

move substances out of cell, vesicle forms around substance and moves to plasma membrane

10

endocytosis

cell membrane forms a vesicle to receive substance phagocytosis-cell eating
pinocytosis-cell drinking

11

cilia function and structure

hairlike extension that beat together to propel substances along cell surface

12

villi/microvilli function and structure

fingerlike extension of cell membrane to increase total cell surface area

13

flagella function and structure

whiplike tail used for locomotion

14

cytoplasm function and components (3)

contains everything in the cell
components- cytosol, organelles, and other misc inclusions

15

cytosol structure

jelly like substance fills all spaces of the cell
mostly water
1/2 the cells volume

16

ribosomes function and location

made in nucleolus,
synthesize protein
free or fixed on rough endoplasmic redticulum

17

endoplasmic reticulum function and types

rough- has attached ribosomes, helps produce/distribute proteins
smooth ER- no ribosomes, produces hormones and helps breakdown lipids

18

golgi apparatus structure and function

flatten sacs
prepares and packages proteins and enzymes
postal service of the cel

19

mitochondria function and structure

double membrane organelle w/inner folds called cristae
powerhouse of the cell
produces energy in the form of ATP

20

lysosomes function and structure

spherical sacs
surround and digest waste

21

peroxisomes

smaller spherical sacs that detoxify substances

22

cytoskeleton function

filaments and tubules that form internal structure of cell

23

centrosome

spherical structure near nucleus that contain two centrioles-bundles of microtubules, function in mitosis as well as cilia and flagella

24

pigments and food stores (3)

proteins, lipids, glycosomes

25

nucleus functions and structure (7)

cell control center
largest organelle
some cells have more than 1
usually spherical
contains genetic info in form of DNA, controls cell activity
surrounded by nuclear envelope
contains nucleolus

26

nuclear envelope

porous to allow nucleolus to pass in/out
encloses nucleoplasm

27

nucleolus

1 or more in nucleus
produces ribosomes and transports them to the ER

28

DNA structure and subunits

double helix of 4 subunits called nucleotides
thymine
adenine
cytosine
guanine

29

chromatin consists of what?

DNA and proteins

30

mitosis

how most body cells develop

31

karyotype

photographic inventory of individual chromosomes

32

normal human has how many pairs of chromosomes?

23 pairs or 46 total

33

monosomy

missing 1 chromosome, does not survive development

34

trisomy

3 chromosomes/1 extra, can survive development but it is not likely

35

trisomy 21

down syndrome 1 out of 700, most common abnormality

36

down syndrome characteristics (6)

flattened face and nose bridge, small teeth, short in stature, heart defects common, susceptible to disease and illness

37

klinefelter syndrome

23rd pair abnormality, XXY chromosomes
male but has female characteristics
small testes
has breasts
no body hair

38

XYY

no substantial evidence but may be linked to hyper-aggression and an increased possibility of committing a crime

39

turner syndrome

XO chromosomes- is female due to no Y chromosome
short
sterile
without estrogen treatment do not develop secondary sexual characteristics

40

five phases of the cell cycle

interphase
prophases
metaphase
anaphase
telephase

41

interphase

90% of cell cycle
increases protein supply, organelles grow
DNA replicates and combines with protein to make chromatin=thicker DNA threads
long strands of chromatin present

42

prophase

chromatin threads separate into chromatid and have sister pairs attached at centromeres
centrosomes start to separate

43

metaphase

centrosomes are at opposite poles and exert force to cause chromosomes to line up along equitorial phase

44

anaphase

centromeres break apart
leaving identical sister chromatid

45

telophase

cell pinches into 2
result is 2 daughter cells with same genetic info