Chapter 56: The Umbilical Cord

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1

allantoic duct

elongated duct that contributes to development of the umbilical cord and placenta during the first trimester

2

battledore placenta

marginal or eccentric insertion of the umbilical cord into the placenta

3

ductus venosus

the smaller, shorter, and more posterior of the two branches into which the umbilical vein divides after entering the abdomen; it empties into the inferior vena cava

4

false knots of the umbilical cord

occur when blood vessels are longer than the cord; they fold on themselves and produce nodulations on the surface of the cord

5

gastroschisis

anomaly in which part of the bowel remains outside the abdominal wall without a membrane

6

hemangioma of the cord

vascular tumor within the umbilical cord

7

membranous or velamentous insertion of the cord

cord inserts into the membranes before it enters the placenta

8

nuchal cord

occurs when the cord is wrapped around the fetal neck

9

omphalocele

failure of the bowel, stomach, and liver to return to the abdominal cavity; completely covered by a peritoneal-amniotic membrane

10

omphalomesenteric cyst

cystic lesion of the umbilical cord

11

single umbilical artery

high association of congenital anomalies with a single umbilical artery

12

superior vesical arteries

after birth, the umbilical arteries become the superior vesical arteries

13

true knots of the umbilical cord

arise from fetal movements and are more likely to develop during early pregnancy, when relatively more amniotic fluid is present and greater fetal movement occurs; true knots are associated with advanced maternal age, multiparity, and long umbilical cords

14

umbilical herniation

failure of the anterior abdominal wall to close completely at the level of the umbilicus

15

vasa previa

occurs when the umbilical cord vessels cross the internal os of the cervix

16

Wharton’s jelly

myxomatous connective tissue that surrounds the umbilical vessels and varies in size

17

yolk stalk

umbilical duct connecting the yolk sac with the embryo