Chapter 52: Sonography and High-Risk Pregnancy

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1

anascara

severe generalized massive edema often seen with fetal hydrops

2

caudal regression syndrome

lack of development of the caudal spine and cord (may occur in the fetus of a diabetic mother)

3

conjoined twins

occurs when the division of the egg occurs after 13 days

4

dizygotic

twins that arise from two separately fertilized ova

5

eclampsia

coma and seizures in the second- and third-trimester patient secondary to pregnancy-induced hypertension

6

fetus papyraceous

fetal death that occurs after the fetus has reached a certain growth that is too large to resorb into the uterus

7

hydrops fetalis

fluid occurs in at least two areas: pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, ascites, or skin edema

8

hyperemesis gravidarum

excessive vomiting that leads to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance

9

maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP)

an antigen present in the fetus; the maternal serum is tested between 15 and 22 weeks of gestation to detect abnormal levels; can also be tested directly from the amniotic fluid during amniocentesis

10

maternal serum quad screen

a blood test conducted during the second trimester (15 to 22 weeks) to identify pregnancies at a higher risk for chromosomal anomalies (trisomy 21 and trisomy 18) and neural tube defects

11

monozygotic

twins that arise from a single fertilized egg that divides to produce two identical fetuses

12

nonimmune hydrops (NIH)

a group of conditions in which hydrops is present in the fetus but not a result of fetomaternal blood group incompatibility

13

oligohydramnios

too little amniotic fluid

14

polyhydramnios

too much amniotic fluid

15

preeclampsia

complication of pregnancy characterized by increasing hypertension, proteinuria, and edema

16

pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)

elevation of maternal blood pressure that may put the fetus at risk

17

premature rupture of the membranes (PROM)

leaking or breaking of the amniotic membranes causing the loss of amniotic fluid, which may lead to premature delivery or infection

18

Rh blood group

system of antigens that may be found on the surface of red blood cells; when the Rh factor is present, the blood type is Rh positive; when the Rh antigen is absent, the blood type is Rh negative; a pregnant woman who is Rh negative may become sensitized by the blood of an Rh-positive fetus; in subsequent pregnancies, if the fetus is Rh positive, the Rh antibodies produced in maternal blood may cross the placenta and destroy fetal cells, causing erythroblastosis fetalis

19

Spaulding’s sign

overlapping of the skull bones; occurs in fetal death

20

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

inflammatory disease involving multiple organ systems; a fetus of a mother with SLE may develop heart block and pericardial effusion

21

twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTS)

monozygotic twin pregnancy with single placenta and arteriovenous shunt within the placenta; the donor twin becomes anemic and growth restricted with oligohydramnios; the recipient twin may develop hydrops and polyhydramnios