Chapter 51: Fetal Growth Assessment by Sonography

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1

amniotic fluid index (AFI)

sum of the four quadrants of amniotic fluid

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biophysical profile (BPP)

assessment of fetus to determine fetal well-being; includes evaluation of cardiac nonstress test, fetal breathing movement, gross fetal body movements, fetal tone, and amniotic fluid volume

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estimated fetal weight (EFW)

incorporation of all fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur and humeral length)

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intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)

decreased rate of fetal growth; may be symmetric (all growth parameters are small) or asymmetric (may be caused by placental problem; head measurements correlate with dates; body disproportionately smaller); formerly referred to as intrauterine growth retardation

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large for gestational age (LGA)

fetus measures larger than dates (diabetic fetus)

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macrosomia

birth weight greater than 4000 g or above the 90th percentile for the estimated gestational age

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nonstress test (NST)

uses Doptone to record the fetal heart rate and its reactivity to the stress of uterine contraction

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placental grade

technique of grading the placenta for maturity

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postterm

fetus born later than the 42-week gestational period

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preterm

fetus born earlier than the normal 38- to 42-week gestational period

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pulsed wave Doppler

type of Doppler used in most fetal examinations; the transducer has the ability to both send and receive Doppler signals

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small for gestational age (SGA)

fetus measures smaller than dates