Chapter 50: Obstetric Measurements and Gestational Age

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1

abdominal circumference (AC)

measurement at the level of the stomach, left portal vein, and left umbilical vein

2

age range analysis (ARA)

fetal parameters of size and proportionality expressed as age

3

anophthalmos

absence of one (cyclops) or both eyes

4

average age (AA)

average of multiple fetal parameters’ ages

5

“banana” sign

refers to the shape of the cerebellum when a spinal defect is present (cerebellum is pulled downward into the foramen magnum)

6

binocular distance (BD)

measurement that includes both fetal orbits at the same time to predict gestational age

7

biparietal diameter (BPD)

fetal transverse cranial diameter at the level of the thalamus and cavum septum pellucidum

8

brachycephaly

fetal head is relatively wide in the transverse diameter and shortened in the anteroposterior diameter

9

crown-rump length (CRL)

most accurate measurement for determining gestational age; made in the first trimester dolichocephaly fetal head is relatively narrow in the transverse plane and elongated in the anteroposterior plane

10

embryonic heart rate (EHR)

the heart rate before the early 9th week of gestation (after the LMP)

11

femur length (FL)

measurement of the femoral diaphysis

12

gestational sac

structure that is normally found within the uterus and contains the developing embryo

13

gestational sac diameter

used in the first trimester to estimate appropriate gestational age with menstrual dates

14

growth-adjusted sonar age (GASA)

the method whereby the fetus is categorized into small, average, or large growth percentile

15

humeral length

measurement from the humeral head to the distal end of the humerus

16

hypertelorism

condition in which the orbits are spaced far apart

17

hypotelorism

condition in which the orbits are close together

18

intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)

condition in which the fetus is not growing as fast as normal; usually considered as being malnourished or abnormal

19

last menstrual period (LMP)

the first day of the LMP is used as the start date for human pregnancies

20

“lemon” sign

occurs with spina bifida; frontal bones collapse inward

21

microphthalmos

small eyes

22

oxycephaly

the condition of having a relatively high cranial vault with a high or peaked appearance; it is caused by molding of the cranium, exaggerating the vertical axis, or in more severe cases by premature closure of the coronal, sagittal, and lambdoidal sutures and with a vertical index above 77

23

platycephaly

flattening of the vertex of the skull; it is often associated with cranial molding, flattening the top of the skull, and compensatory exaggeration of the biparietal diameter

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small for gestational age (SGA)

a normal fetus that measures smaller than dates

25

spina bifida

failure of the vertebrae to close