Chapter 49: Sonography of the Second and Third Trimesters

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1

apex

the ventricles of the heart come to a point called the apex; normally the apex is directed toward the left hip

2

atrium of the lateral ventricles

the portion of the cerebral ventricular system where the lateral lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes connect; located posterior and lateral to the thalami

3

breech

indicates that the fetal head is toward the fundus of the uterus

4

cavum septum pellucidum

a cavity within the septum pellucidum in the anterior midportion of the fetal brain

5

choroid plexus

echogenic tissue within the lateral ventricles that produces central nervous system fluid and is seen prominently during second-trimester fetal sonography

6

cisterna magna

a posterior fossa cistern that contains cerebrospinal fluid

7

corpus callosum

a narrow band of compact tissue forming a solid covering over the roof of the third ventricle and connecting the hemispheres of the brain

8

ductus arteriosus

structure that carries oxygenated blood from the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta

9

ductus venosus

structure that carries oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava

10

echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF)

an echo within a fetal heart chamber that is as bright (echogenic) as bone and persists despite changes in the sonographic plane

11

frontal bossing

protrusion or bulging of the forehead

12

genetic sonogram

adjusting an individual patient’s risk assessment for aneuploidy based on the presence or absence of sonographic markers

13

hyperechoic bowel

increased echogenicity of the bowel associated with aneuploidy risk and fetal pathology

14

lateral ventricles

the largest portion of the ventricular system in the fetal cranium

15

likelihood ratio

the probability that a fetus exhibiting a specific finding will be affected by a specific condition; likelihood ratios in pregnancy are typically used to predict risk for aneuploidy

16

macroglossia

a large tongue seen persistently extending outside of the fetal mouth

17

micrognathia

abnormally small chin

18

midline echo (the falx)

linear echoes located centrally in the fetal head that are produced by the borders of the opposing cerebral hemispheres

19

nomogram

written representation by graphs, diagrams, or charts of the relationship between numeric variables

20

normal situs

typical position of the abdominal organs with the liver and inferior vena cava on the right, the stomach on the left, and the apex of the heart directed toward the left

21

nuchal skin fold

the thickness of fetal skin at the back of the fetal neck that may be visualized and measured between 16 and 20 weeks’ gestational age to assess aneuploidy risk

22

pyelectasis

mild dilation of the renal pelvis

23

transverse fetal lie

indicates that the fetus is lying transversely in the uterus, horizontally, or perpendicular to the maternal sagittal axis

24

ventriculomegaly

enlargement of the cerebral ventricles

25

vertex

indicates that the fetus is positioned head down in the uterus