Chapter 47: The Normal First Trimester

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1

amniotic cavity

cavity in which the fetus exists; it forms early in gestation and fills with amniotic fluid to protect the fetus

2

chorionic cavity

surrounds the amniotic cavity; the yolk sac is within the chorionic cavity

3

chorionic villi sampling (CVS)

invasive diagnostic genetic testing that involves sampling zygotic cells from developing placental tissue

4

crown-rump length (CRL)

most accurate measurement of the embryo in the first trimester

5

decidua basalis

the uterine decidual surface on the maternal side of the placenta; the decidual basalis is invaded by trophoblastic cells that form the placenta

6

decidua capsularis

the uterine decidua on the surface of the implantation site. As the pregnancy progresses, the decidua capsularis may shed, causing light early pregnancy bleeding

7

diamniotic

multiple pregnancy with two amniotic sacs

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dichorionic

multiple pregnancy with two chorionic sacs

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double decidual sac sign

interface between the decidua capsularis and the echogenic, highly vascular surface on the opposite side of the endometrial cavity

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embryologic age (conceptual age)

age calculated from when conception occurs

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embryonic period

time between 4 and 10 weeks’ gestation

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hematopoiesis

production and development of blood cells

13

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

hormone secreted by the trophoblastic cells (developing placental cells) of the blastocyst; laboratory test indicates pregnancy when values are elevated

14

IUP

intrauterine pregnancy

15

menstrual age (gestational age)

length of time calculated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (LMP) to the point at which the pregnancy is being assessed

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monoamniotic

multiple pregnancy with one amniotic sac

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monochorionic

multiple pregnancy with one chorionic sac

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MSD

mean sac diameter

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primary yolk sac

first site of formation of red blood cells that will nourish the embryo

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secondary yolk sac

formed at 23 days when the primary yolk sac is pinched off by the extraembryonic coelom

21

transvaginal (TV) transducer

high-frequency transducer that is inserted into the vaginal canal to obtain images of first-trimester pregnancy

22

yolk stalk

the umbilical duct connecting the yolk sac with the embryo

23

zygote

the conceptus resulting from the union of male and female gametes. In a normal pregnancy, the zygote travels through the tubes and implants in the uterus