Chapter 40: The Sonographic and Doppler Evaluation of the Female Pelvis

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1

adnexa

structure or tissue next to or near another related structure; the ovaries and the fallopian tubes are in the adnexa of the uterus

2

anteverted

tipped forward

3

arcuate vessels

small vessels found along the periphery of the uterus

4

cornu, cornua

any projection like a horn; refers to the fundus of the uterus where the fallopian tube arises

5

coronal plane

refers to a horizontal plane through the longitudinal axis of the body to image structures from anterior to posterior

6

endometrium

inner lining of the uterine cavity, which appears echogenic to hypoechoic on ultrasound, depending on the menstrual cycle

7

internal os

inner surface of the cervical os

8

introitus

an opening or entrance into a canal or cavity, as the vagina

9

menarche

state after reaching puberty in which menses occur normally every 21 to 28 days

10

menopause

when menses have ceased permanently

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menstruation

days 1 to 4 of the menstrual cycle; the endometrial canal appears as a hypoechoic central line representing blood and tissue

12

myometrium

middle layer of the uterine cavity that appears very homogeneous with sonography

13

parity

pregnancy

14

Pourcelot resistive index (RI)

Doppler measurement that takes the highest systolic peak minus the highest diastolic peak divided by the highest systolic peak

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premenarche

time before the onset of menses

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proliferative phase (early)

days 5 to 9 of the menstrual cycle; endometrium appears as a single thin stripe with a hypoechoic halo encompassing it; creates the “three-line sign”

17

proliferative phase (late)

days 10 to 14 of the menstrual cycle; ovulation occurs; the endometrium increases in thickness and echogenicity

18

pulsatility index (PI)

Doppler measurement that uses peak systole minus peak diastole divided by the mean

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retroverted

bending backward

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sagittal plane

a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis of the body that divides it into two portions

21

S/D ratio

difference between peak systole and end diastole

22

secretory (luteal) phase

days 15 to 28 of the menstrual cycle; the endometrium is at its greatest thickness and echogenicity with posterior enhancement

23

sonohysterography

(saline infused sonography, or SIS) technique that uses a catheter inserted into the endometrial cavity, with the insertion of saline solution or contrast medium, to fill the endometrial cavity for the purpose of demonstrating abnormalities within the cavity or uterine tubes

24

translabial

across, or through, the labia

25

transperineal

across, or through, the perineum