Chapter 34: Fetal Echocardiography: Congenital Heart Disease

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1

aortic stenosis

abnormal development of the cusps of the aortic valve that results in thickened and domed leaflets

2

atrial septal defect

communication between the left atrium and right atrium that continues after birth; the three most common forms of atrial septal defect are ostium secundum, ostium primum, and sinus venosus

3

atrioventricular block

block of transmission of the electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles (may be 2:1 or 3:1 block)

4

atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)

failure of the endocardial cushion to fuse; this defect of the central heart provides communication between the ventricles, between the atria, or between the atria and ventricles; AVSD is subdivided into complete, incomplete, and partial forms

5

bicuspid aortic valve

congenital abnormality that causes two of the three aortic leaflets to fuse together, resulting in a two-leaflet valve instead of the normal three-leaflet valve; usually the cusps are asymmetric in size and position; may be the cause of adult aortic stenosis or insufficiency

6

cardiomyopathy

disease of the myocardial muscle layer of the heart that causes the heart to dilate secondary to regurgitation and also affects cardiac function

7

coarctation of the aorta

narrowing of the aortic arch (discrete, long-segment, or tubular); most commonly occurs as a shelflike protrusion in the isthmus of the arch or at the site of the ductal insertion near the left subclavian artery

8

cor triatriatum

occurs when the left atrial cavity is partitioned into two components; pulmonary veins drain into an accessory left atrial chamber proximal to the true left atrium

9

corrected transposition of the great arteries

right atrium and left atrium are connected to the morphologic left and right ventricles, respectively, and the great arteries are transposed

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dextrocardia

heart is in the right chest with the apex pointed to the right of the thorax

11

dextroposition

condition in which the heart is located in the right side of the chest and the cardiac apex points medially or to the left

12

ductal constriction

occurs when flow is diverted from the ductus secondary to tricuspid or pulmonary atresia or secondary to maternal medications given to stop early contractions

13

Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve

abnormal displacement of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve toward the apex of the right ventricle; the right ventricle above this leaflet becomes the “atrialized” chamber

14

hypoplastic left heart syndrome

underdevelopment of the left ventricle with aortic or mitral atresia; the left ventricle is extremely thickened compared with the right ventricle

15

hypoplastic right heart syndrome

underdevelopment of the right ventricular outflow tract secondary to pulmonary stenosis; tricuspid atresia is also often found

16

levocardia

normal position of the heart in the left chest with the cardiac apex pointed to the left

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levoposition

condition in which the heart is displaced farther toward the left chest, usually in association with a space-occupying lesion

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mesocardia

atypical location of the heart in the middle of the chest with the cardiac apex pointing toward the midline of the chest

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mitral atresia

also called congenital mitral stenosis; abnormal development of the mitral leaflet (valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle) that may lead to development of hypoplastic left ventricle

20

mitral regurgitation

occurs when the mitral leaflet is deformed and unable to close properly, allowing blood to leak from the left ventricle into the left atrium during systole

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myocarditis

cardiac disease process of necrosis and destruction of myocardial cells as well as an inflammatory infiltrate

22

partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

condition in which the pulmonary veins do not all enter into the left atrial cavity

23

pericardial effusion

abnormal collection of fluid surrounding the epicardial layer of the heart

24

premature atrial contractions (PACs)

benign condition that arises from the electrical impulses generated outside the cardiac pacemaker (sinus node); immature development of the electrical pacing system causes irregular heartbeats scattered throughout the cardiac cycle

25

premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)

benign condition that arises from the electrical impulses generated outside the cardiac pacemaker (sinus node); immature development of the electrical pacing system causes irregular heartbeats scattered throughout the cardiac cycle

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pulmonary stenosis

abnormal pulmonary valve characterized by thickened, domed leaflets that restrict the amount of blood flowing from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to the lungs

27

single ventricle

a congenital anomaly in which there are two atria but only one ventricular chamber, which receives both the mitral and tricuspid valves

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subpulmonic stenosis

occurs when a membrane or muscle bundle obstructs the outflow tract into the pulmonary artery

29

supravalvular pulmonic stenosis

abnormal narrowing in the main pulmonary artery superior to the valve opening

30

supraventricular tachyarrhythmias

abnormal cardiac rhythm above 200 beats per minute with a conduction rate of 1:1

31

tetralogy of Fallot

most common form of cyanotic heart disease characterized by a high, membranous ventricular septal defect; large, anteriorly displaced aorta; pulmonary stenosis; and right ventricular hypertrophy

32

total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR)

condition in which the pulmonary veins do not return at all into the left atrial cavity; the veins may return into the right atrial cavity or into a chamber posterior to the left atrial cavity

33

transposition of the great arteries

abnormal condition that exists when the aorta is connected to the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery is connected to the left ventricle; the atrioventricular valves are normally attached and related

34

tricuspid atresia

underdevelopment of the tricuspid valve (usually associated with hypoplasia of the right ventricle and pulmonary stenosis)

35

truncus arteriosus

congenital heart lesion in which only one great artery arises from the base of the heart; the pulmonary trunk, the systemic arteries, and the coronary arteries arise from this single great artery

36

ventricular septal defect

defect in the ventricular septum that provides communication between the right and left chambers of the heart; most common congenital lesion in the heart