Chapter 27: The Neonatal and Pediatric Kidneys and Adrenal Glands

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1

adrenal hemorrhage

occurs when the fetus is stressed during a difficult delivery or a hypoxic insult (lack of oxygen)

2

arcuate arteries

lie at the base of the medullary pyramids and appear as echogenic structures

3

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)

congenital polycystic kidney disease that usually presents during middle age; sometimes asymptomatic, the severity of the disease varies widely; presents with hypertension, hematuria, and enlarged kidneys; cysts can also form in the liver, spleen, and pancreas

4

autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)

rare, congenital polycystic renal disease also known as infantile polycystic disease; typically presents with diffuse enlargement, sacculations, and cystic diverticula of the medullary portions of the kidneys

5

congenital mesoblastic nephroma

most common benign renal tumor of the neonate and infant

6

cortex

the outer rim of the kidney; the cortex is thin in the neonate, with an echogenicity similar or slightly greater than that of the normal liver parenchyma

7

ectasia

dilatation of any tubular vessel

8

ectopic ureterocele

occurs more commonly in females (on left side); ectopic insertion and cystic dilation of distal ureter of a duplicated renal collecting system

9

hydronephrosis

dilation of the renal collecting system

10

medullary pyramids

large and hypoechoic in the neonate

11

multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK)

most common cause of renal cystic disease in the neonate; multiple cystic masses within the kidney; may have contralateral ureteral pelvic junction obstruction

12

nephroblastomatosis

abnormal persistence of fetal renal blastema (potential to develop into Wilms’ tumor)

13

neuroblastoma

malignant adrenal mass seen in pediatric patients; hemorrhaging tumor principally consisting of cells resembling neuroblasts

14

polycystic renal disease

poorly functioning enlarged kidneys

15

posterior urethral valve

the presence of a valve in the posterior urethra; occurs only in male fetuses; most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in the male neonate

16

Potter facies

classification of cystic renal disease

17

prune belly syndrome

dilation of the fetal abdomen secondary to severe bilateral hydronephrosis and fetal ascites; fetus also has oligohydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia

18

pulmonary hypoplasia

underdevelopment of the lung tissue that occurs in utero secondary to oligohydramnios

19

renal vein thrombosis

kidney becomes enlarged and edematous as a result of obstruction of the renal vein

20

ureteropelvic junction obstruction

most common neonatal obstruction of the urinary tract; results from intrinsic narrowing or extrinsic vascular compression

21

VACTERL

adds cardiac and limb anomalies to the VATER syndrome

22

VATER

vertebral, anal, tracheoesophageal fistula, and renal anomalies

23

Wilms’ tumor (nephroblastoma)

most frequent malignant tumor in the neonate and infant