Chapter 26: The Pediatric Abdomen: Jaundice and Common Surgical Conditions

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1

Acholic

describes the absence or deficiency of bile secretion or failure of the bile to enter the alimentary tract (i.e., secondary to obstruction); the stool is claylike and colorless

2

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

3

appendicolith

fecalith or calcification located within the appendix; echogenic

4

atretic

congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening or tubular structure

5

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

hereditary disorder transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait; clinical manifestations include umbilical hernia (exomphalos), macroglossia, and gigantism, often accompanied by visceromegaly and dysplasia of the renal medulla; also called exophthalmos-macroglossia-gigantism (EMG) syndrome

6

biliary atresia

closure or absence of some or all of the major bile ducts

7

choledochal cyst

congenital cystic malformation of the common bile duct

8

hemihypertrophy

excessive development of one side or one half of the body or an organ

9

hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS)

thickened muscle in the pylorus that prevents food from entering the duodenum; occurs more frequently in males

10

inspissated

thickened by absorption, evaporation, or dehydration

11

intussusception

occurs when bowel prolapses into distal bowel and is propelled in an antegrade fashion

12

neonate

infant in the first 28 days of life

13

neuroblastoma

a malignant hemorrhagic tumor principally consisting of cells resembling neuroblasts that give rise to cells of the sympathetic system (especially the adrenal medulla)

14

projectile vomiting

condition in pyloric stenosis in the neonatal period; after drinking, the infant experiences projectile vomiting secondary to the obstruction in the pylorus

15

pyloric canal

located between the stomach and duodenum

16

scintigraphy

photographing the scintillations emitted by radioactive substances injected into the body; this test is used to determine the outline and function of organs and tissues in which the radioactive substance collects or is secreted

17

target (donut) sign

frequently associated with sectional areas of the gastrointestinal tract; the muscle is hyperechoic, and the inner core is hypoechoic

18

Wilms’ tumor

(nephroblastoma) a rapidly developing tumor of the kidney that usually occurs in children