Chapter 25: Neonatal Echoencephalography

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1

aqueductal stenosis

congenital blockage of the aqueduct connecting the third and fourth ventricles, which causes their dilatation

2

asphyxia

severe hypoxia, or inadequate oxygenation

3

atrium (trigone) of the lateral ventricles

the ventricle is measured at this site (anterior, occipital, and temporal horn junction) on the axial view

4

axial plane

transducer is placed above the ear (above the canthomeatal line)

5

brain stem

part of the brain connecting the forebrain and the spinal cord; consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

6

caudate nucleus

area of the brain that forms the lateral borders of the anterior horns, anterior to the thalamus

7

cavum septum pellucidum

prominent structure best seen in the midline filled with cerebrospinal fluid in the premature infant

8

cerebellum

area of the brain that lies posterior to the brain stem below the tentorium

9

cerebrum

largest part of the brain consisting of two equal hemispheres

10

Chiari malformation

congenital defect in which the cerebellum and brain stem are pulled toward the spinal cord (banana sign); frontal bossing or “lemon head” is also evident on ultrasound

11

choroid plexus

echogenic cluster of cells important in the production of cerebrospinal fluid that lies along the atrium of the lateral ventricles

12

cistern

reservoir for cerebrospinal fluid

13

coronal plane

transducer is perpendicular to the anterior fontanelle in the coronal axis of the head

14

corpus callosum

prominent group of nerve fibers that connect the right and left sides of the brain; found superior to the third ventricle

15

Dandy-Walker malformation

abnormal development of the fourth ventricle, often accompanied by hydrocephalus

16

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

treatment for infants with severe respiratory failure who have not responded to maximal conventional ventilatory support

17

falx cerebri (interhemispheric fissure)

echogenic fibrous structure (portion of the dura mater) that separates the cerebral hemispheres

18

fontanelle

soft space between the bones; the space is usually large enough to accommodate the ultrasound transducer until the age of 12 months

19

germinal matrix

fragile periventricular tissue (includes the caudate nucleus) that easily bleeds in the premature infant

20

holoprosencephaly

congenital defect characterized by abnormal single ventricular cavity with some form of thalami fusion; caused by an extra chromosome, the prosencephalon fails to divide into hemispheres during embryonic development

21

hydrocephalus

ventriculomegaly in the neonate; abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid with the cerebral ventricles, resulting in compression and frequently destruction of brain tissue

22

hypoxia

decreased oxygen in the body

23

meninges

three membranes enclosing the brain and spinal cord

24

neonate

infant during the early newborn period

25

periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

echogenic white matter necrosis (WMN) best seen in the posterior aspect of the brain or adjacent to the ventricular structures

26

sagittal plane

perpendicular to the coronal plane with the transducer in the anterior fontanelle

27

subependyma

fragile area beneath the ependyma that is subject to bleeding in the premature neonate; site of hemorrhage for the germinal matrix

28

subependymal cyst

cyst that occurs at the site of a previous bleed in the germinal matrix

29

sulcus

groove on the surface of the brain that separates the gyri

30

tentorium cerebelli

echogenic V-shaped “tent” structure in the posterior fossa that separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum

31

thalamic-caudate groove or notch

the region at which the thalamus and caudate nucleus join; the most common location of germinal matrix hemorrhage

32

thalamus

two ovoid brain structures located midbrain, situated on either side of the third ventricle superior to the brain stem

33

ventriculitis

inflammation or infection of the ventricles, which appears as echogenic linear structures along the gyri; may also appear as focal echogenic structures within the white matter