Chapter 24: The Musculoskeletal System

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1

acromioclavicular joint (AC)

the joint found in the shoulder that connects the clavicle to the acromion process of the scapula

2

anisotropy

the quality of comprising varying values of a given property when measured in different directions

3

aponeurosis

bandlike flat tendons connecting muscle to bone

4

Baker’s cyst

synovial fluid collection in the posterior fossa

5

bursa

a saclike structure containing thick fluid that surrounds areas subject to friction, such as the interface between bone and tendon

6

cartilage interface sign

echogenic line on the anterior surface of the cartilage surrounding the humeral head

7

clapper-in-the-bell sign

hypoechoic hematoma found at the end of a completely retracted muscle fragment

8

comet tail artifact (ring-down)

posterior linear equidistant artifact created when sound reverberates between two strong reflectors, such as air bubbles, metal, and glass

9

dorsiflexion

upward movement of the hand or foot

10

epineurium

the covering of a nerve that consists of connective tissue

11

fasciculi

term describing a small bundle of muscles, nerves, and tendons

12

Guyon’s canal or tunnel

a fibrous tunnel that contains the ulnar artery and vein, ulnar nerve, and some fatty tissue

13

ligament

fibrous band of tissue connecting bone or cartilage to bone that aids in stabilizing a joint

14

muscle

a type of tissue consisting of contractile cells or fibers that affects movement of an organ or part of the body

15

myelin

substance forming the sheath of Schwann cells

16

naked tuberosity sign

the deltoid muscle is on the humeral head; seen with a full-thickness tear of the rotator cuff

17

nerve

conduit for impulses sent to and from the muscles and the central nervous system (CNS)

18

pennate

feather-like pattern of muscle growth

19

perineurium

the connective tissue that surrounds muscle

20

Phalen’s sign (Phalen’s test, Phalen’s maneuver, or Phalen’s position)

an increase in wrist compression due to hyperflexion of the wrist for 60 seconds; this test is done with the patient holding the forearms upright and pressing the ventral sides of the hands together

21

plantar flexion

pointing of the toes toward the plantar surface of the foot

22

refractile shadowing (edge artifact)

bending of the sound beam at the edge of a circular structure, resulting in the absence of posterior echoes

23

seroma

accumulation of serous fluid within tissue

24

synovial sheath

membrane surrounding a joint, tendon, or bursa that secretes a viscous fluid called synovia

25

tendinitis (tendinopathy, tendinosis, or tenosynovitis)

inflammation of a tendon

26

tendon

fibrous tissue connecting muscle to bone

27

Thompson’s test

a test used to evaluate the integrity of the Achilles tendon that involves plantar flexion with squeezing of the calf

28

Tinel’s sign (Hoffmann-Tinel sign, Tinel’s symptom, or Tinel-Hoffmann sign)

pins-and-needles–type tingling felt distal to a percussion site. Sensation can be abnormal or can be a normal occurrence (i.e., hitting the elbow creates a tingling in the distal arm)

29

volar

the anterior portion of the body when in anatomic position