Chapter 22: The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

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1

adenoma

benign thyroid neoplasm characterized by complete fibrous encapsulation

2

anaplastic carcinoma

rare, undifferentiated carcinoma occurring in middle age

3

branchial cleft cyst

remnant of embryonic development that appears as a cyst in the neck

4

calcitonin

a thyroid hormone that is important for maintaining a dense, strong bone matrix and regulating the blood calcium level

5

euthyroid

refers to a normal functioning thyroid gland

6

fine-needle aspiration

use of a fine-gauge needle to obtain cells from a mass

7

follicular carcinoma

occurs as a solitary malignant mass within the thyroid gland

8

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be focal or diffuse; multiple nodules may be present

9

Graves’ disease

autoimmune disorder characterized by a diffuse toxic goiter, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), and cutaneous manifestations

10

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland caused by the formation of antibodies against normal thyroid tissue

11

hyperparathyroidism

disorder associated with elevated serum calcium level, usually caused by a benign parathyroid adenoma

12

hyperthyroidism

oversecretion of thyroid hormones

13

hypophosphatasia

low phosphatase level, which can be seen with hyperparathyroidism

14

hypothyroidism

undersecretion of thyroid hormones

15

isthmus

small piece of thyroid tissue that connects the right and left lobes of the gland

16

longus colli muscle

wedge-shaped muscle posterior to the thyroid lobes

17

lymphadenopathy

disorder characterized by localized or generalized enlargement of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels

18

medullary carcinoma

neoplastic growth that accounts for 10% of thyroid malignancies

19

microcalcifications

tiny echogenic foci within a nodule that may or may not shadow

20

multinodular goiter

nodular enlargement of the thyroid associated with hyperthyroidism

21

nodular hyperplasia

degenerative nodules within the thyroid

22

papillary carcinoma

most common form of thyroid malignancy

23

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

a hormone that is secreted by the parathyroid glands, which regulate serum calcium levels

24

parathyroid hyperplasia

enlargement of multiple parathyroid glands

25

primary hyperparathyroidism

oversecretion of parathyroid hormone, usually from a parathyroid adenoma

26

pyramidal lobe

present in a small percentage of patients; extends superiorly from the isthmus

27

secondary hyperparathyroidism

enlargement of parathyroid glands in patients with renal failure or vitamin D deficiency

28

serum calcium

laboratory value that is elevated with hyperparathyroidism

29

sternocleidomastoid muscles

large muscles anterolateral to the thyroid

30

strap muscles

group of three muscles (sternothyroid, sternohyoid, and omohyoid) that lie anterior to the thyroid

31

subacute (de Quervain’s) thyroiditis

viral infection of the thyroid that causes inflammation

32

thyroglossal duct cysts

congenital anomalies that present in midline of the neck anterior to the trachea

33

thyroiditis

inflammation of the thyroid

34

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine