Chapter 14: The Urinary System

Helpfulness: +1
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Annabelle
540 views
updated 4 years ago by Annabelle
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

afferent arteriole

small artery that carries blood into the glomerulus of the nephron

2

arcuate arteries

small arteries that lie at the bases of the renal pyramids and appear as echogenic structures

3

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

laboratory measurement of the amount of nitrogenous waste and creatinine in the blood; waste products accumulate in the blood when kidneys malfunction

4

Bowman’s capsule

the cup-shaped end of a renal tubule enclosing a glomerulus; site of filtration of the kidney; contains water, salts, glucose, urea, and amino acids

5

calyx

part of the renal collecting system adjacent to the pyramid that collects urine and is connected to the major calyx

6

columns of Bertin

bands of cortical tissue that separate the renal pyramids; a prominent column of Bertin may mimic a renal mass on sonography

7

cortex

refers to the outer parenchyma of the kidney that contains the renal corpuscle and proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the nephron

8

creatinine (Cr)

a product of metabolism; laboratory test that measures the ability of the kidney to get rid of waste; waste products accumulate in the blood when the kidneys are malfunctioning

9

dromedary hump

normal variant that occurs on the left kidney as a bulge on the lateral border

10

efferent arteriole

small artery that carries blood from the glomerulus of the nephron and conducts blood to the peritubular capillaries that surround the renal tubule

11

Gerota’s fascia

another term for the renal fascia; the kidney is covered by the renal capsule, perirenal fat, Gerota’s fascia, and pararenal fat

12

glomerulus

network of capillaries that are part of the filtration process in the kidney

13

hilus

area of kidney where vessels, ureter, and lymphatics enter and exit

14

homeostasis

maintenance of normal body physiology

15

horseshoe kidney

congenital malformation in which both kidneys are joined together by an isthmus, most commonly at the lower poles

16

hydronephrosis

dilation of the renal collecting system

17

loop of Henle

portion of a renal tubule lying between the proximal and distal convoluted portions; reabsorption of fluid, sodium, and chloride occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule and the loop of Henle

18

major calyces (also known as the infundibula)

receive urine from the minor calyces to convey to the renal pelvis

19

medulla (also known as the pyramid)

the inner portion of the renal parenchyma that contains the loop of Henle

20

minor calyces

receive urine from the renal pyramids; form the border of the renal sinus

21

Morison’s pouch

right posterior subhepatic space located anterior to the kidney and inferior to the liver where fluid may accumulate

22

nephron

functional unit of the kidney; includes a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule

23

renal agenesis

interruption in the normal development of the kidney resulting in absence of the kidney; may be unilateral or bilateral

24

renal capsule

first layer adjacent to the kidney that forms a tough, fibrous covering

25

renal corpuscle

part of the nephron that consists of Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus

26

renal ectopia (ectopic kidney)

a kidney that is not located in its usual position, usually found in the pelvic cavity

27

renal hilum

area in the midportion of the kidney where the renal vessels and ureter enter and exit

28

renal hypoplasia

incomplete development of the kidney, usually with fewer than five calyces

29

renal pelvis

area in the midportion of the kidney that collects urine before entering the ureter

30

renal pyramid

one of several conical masses of tissue that form the kidney medulla. The base of each pyramid adjoins the kidney’s cortex; the apex terminates at a renal calyx. The pyramids consist of the loops of Henle and the collecting tubules of the nephrons

31

renal sinus

central area of the kidney that includes the calyces, renal pelvis, renal vessels, fat, nerves, and lymphatics

32

retroperitoneum

space behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity

33

specific gravity

laboratory tests that measure how much dissolved material is present in the urine

34

ureters

retroperitoneal structures that exit the kidney to carry urine to the urinary bladder

35

urethra

small, membranous canal that excretes urine from the urinary bladder

36

urinary bladder

muscular retroperitoneal organ that serves as a reservoir for urine

37

urolithiasis

stone within the urinary system

38

What are the renal vascularity?

Renal Artery

Segmental Artery

Interlobar Artery

Arcuate Artery

Interlobular Artery

Afferent Arteriole

Efferent Arteriole

Run silently in an intersection

39

Ureter length

25 cm - 34 cm

40

What are the 3 constrictions of the ureters?

ureteropelvic junction

pelvic brim

ureterovesicle junction

41

Urinary Bladder wall

less than 5 mm nondistended

less than 3 mm distended

42

What is the waveform of the renal artery?

low resistance

43

Emphysematous Pyelonephritis

gas forming