Chapter 13: The Gastrointestinal Tract

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1

abscess

localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

2

absorption

process of nutrient molecules passing through wall of intestine into blood or lymph system

3

alimentary tract

also known as the digestive tract; includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and small and large intestine

4

appendicolith

a fecalith or calcification located in the appendix

5

ascites

accumulation of serous fluid in the abdomen

6

cardiac orifice

entrance of the esophagus into the stomach

7

cholecystokinin

hormone secreted into the blood by the mucosa of the upper small intestine; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and pancreatic secretion of enzymes

8

Crohn’s disease

inflammation of the bowel, accompanied by abscess and bowel wall thickening

9

diverticulum

a pouchlike herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ that occurs in the stomach, the small intestine, or, most commonly, the colon

10

duodenal bulb

first part of the duodenum

11

fecalith

calcified deposit within the appendix; appendicitis can develop when the appendix becomes blocked by hard fecal matter; also called fecolith

12

gastrin

endocrine hormone released from the stomach (stimulates secretion of gastric acid)

13

gastrohepatic ligament

helps support the lesser curvature of the stomach

14

gastrophrenic ligament

helps support the greater curvature of the stomach

15

gastrosplenic ligament

ligament between the stomach and the spleen; helps support stomach and spleen

16

greater omentum

double fold of the peritoneum attached to the duodenum, stomach, and large intestine; helps support the greater curve of the stomach; known as the fatty apron

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haustra

normal segmentation of the wall of the colon

18

hemorrhage

collection of blood

19

hepatic flexure

ascending colon rises from the right lower quadrant to bend at this point to form the transverse colon

20

lesser omentum

membranous extension of the peritoneum that suspends the stomach and duodenum from the liver; helps to support the lesser curvature of the stomach

21

lienorenal ligament

ligament between the spleen and the kidney that helps support the greater curvature of the stomach

22

lymphoma

malignancy of the lymph nodes, spleen, or liver

23

McBurney’s point

located by drawing a line from the right anterosuperior iliac spine to the umbilicus; at approximately the midpoint of this line lies the root of the appendix

24

McBurney’s sign

site of maximum tenderness in the right lower quadrant; usually seen with appendicitis

25

Meckel’s diverticulum

congenital sac or blind pouch found in the lower portion of the ileum

26

mesentery

a fold from the parietal peritoneum that attaches to the small intestine, anchoring it to the posterior abdominal wall

27

mesothelium

fifth layer of bowel

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mucosa

first layer of bowel

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muscularis

third layer of bowel

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paralytic ileus

dilated fluid-filled bowel loops without peristalsis

31

peristalsis

rhythmic dilatation and contraction of the gastrointestinal tract as food is propelled through it

32

polyp

a small tumor-like growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface

33

pyloric canal

muscle that connects the stomach to the proximal duodenum

34

rugae

inner folds of the stomach wall

35

secretin

released from small bowel as antacid; stimulates secretion of bicarbonate

36

serosa

fourth layer of bowel; thin, loose layer of connective tissue, surrounded by mesothelium covering the intraperitoneal bowel loops

37

splenic flexure

the transverse colon travels horizontally across the abdomen and bends at this point to form the descending colon

38

submucosa

one of the layers of the bowel, under the mucosal layer; contains blood vessels and lymph channels

39

target sign

characteristic of gastrointestinal wall thickening consisting of an echogenic center and a hypoechoic rim

40

valvulae conniventes

normal segmentation of the small bowel

41

villi

inner folds of the small intestine