Chapter 11: The Gallbladder and the Biliary System
small polypoid projections from the gallbladder wall
ampulla of Vater
small opening in the duodenum in which the pancreatic and common bile duct enter to release secretions
yellow pigment in bile formed by the breakdown of red blood cells
inflammation of the bile duct
removal of the gallbladder
inflammation of the gallbladder; may be acute or chronic
hormone secreted into the blood by the mucosa of the upper small intestine; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and pancreatic secretion of enzymes
cystic growth of the common duct that may cause obstruction
stones in the bile duct
gallstones in the gallbladder
variant of adenomyomatosis; cholesterol polyps; also called cholesterosis
common bile duct
extends from the point where the common hepatic duct meets the cystic duct; drains into the duodenum after it joins with the main pancreatic duct
refers to common bile or hepatic ducts when the cystic duct is not seen
common hepatic duct
bile duct system that drains the liver into the common bile duct
connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct
storage pouch for bile
small part of the gallbladder that lies near the cystic duct where stones may collect
tiny valves found within the cystic duct
massive enlargement of the gallbladder
excessive bilirubin accumulation that causes yellow pigmentation of the skin; first seen in the whites of the eyes
small septum within the gallbladder, usually arising from the posterior wall
cancer at the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts; may cause asymmetric obstruction of the biliary tree
positive sign implies exquisite tenderness over the area of the gallbladder upon palpation
travels horizontally through the pancreas to join the common bile duct at the ampulla of Vater
gallbladder variant in which part of the fundus is bent back on itself
polyps of the gallbladder
small, well-defined soft tissue projection from the gallbladder wall
calcification of the gallbladder wall
central area of the liver where the portal vein, common duct, and hepatic artery enter
low-level echoes found along the posterior margin of the gallbladder; move with change in position
sphincter of Oddi
small muscle that guards the ampulla of Vater
wall echo shadow (WES) sign
sonographic pattern found when the gallbladder is packed with stones
Name the layers of the GB
What is the least common variant of the gallbladder?
What GB variant is associated with cystic fibrosis?
What does bile consist of?
What is the most common GB variant?
What causes bile to flow?
cholecystokinin causes contraction of GB
bile flows if ductal pressure is lower than hepatic secretory pressure
What does increased WBC indicate?
injury to bile duct
What does increased bilirubin indicate?
sub accute cholecystitis
injury to bile duct
internal biliary fistula
What does increased indirect bilirubin indicate?
pre or hepatic obstruction
What does increased direct bilirubin indicate?
post hepatic obstruction
What does increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) indicate?
What does increased aspartate aminotansferase (AST) indicate?
What does increased alanine aminotansferase (ALT) indicate?
stays elevated long