Chapter 09: The Vascular System

Helpfulness: +2
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Annabelle
459 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

anastomosis

a communication between two blood vessels without any intervening capillary network

2

aneurysm

permanent localized dilation of an artery, with an increase in diameter of 1.5 times its normal diameter

3

aorta (Ao)

largest arterial structure in the body; arises from the left ventricle to supply blood to the head, upper and lower extremities, and abdominopelvic cavity

4

arteries

vascular structures that carry blood away from the heart

5

arteriosclerosis

a disease of the arterial vessels marked by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls

6

arteriovenous fistula

communication between an artery and a vein

7

atherosclerosis

condition in which the aortic wall becomes irregular from plaque formation

8

Budd-Chiari syndrome

thrombosis of the hepatic veins

9

capillaries

minute vessels that connect the arterial and venous systems

10

cavernous transformation of the portal vein

periportal collateral channels in patients with chronic portal vein obstruction

11

common hepatic artery

arises from the celiac trunk to supply the liver

12

common iliac arteries

a division of the abdominal aorta at the level of the umbilicus that supplies blood to the lower extremities

13

cystic medial necrosis

weakening of the arterial wall

14

dissecting aneurysm

tear in the intima and/or media of the abdominal aorta

15

Doppler sample volume

the sonographer selects the exact site to record Doppler signals and sets the sample volume (gate) at this site

16

fusiform aneurysm

circumferential enlargement of a vessel with tapering at both ends

17

gastroduodenal artery (GDA)

branch of the common hepatic artery that supplies the stomach and duodenum

18

hepatic veins (HV)

largest tributaries that drain the liver and empty into the inferior vena cava at the level of the diaphragm

19

hepatofugal

flow away from the liver

20

hepatopetal

flow toward the liver

21

inferior mesenteric artery (IMA)

arises from the anterior aortic wall at the level of the third or fourth lumbar vertebra to supply the left transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum

22

inferior mesenteric vein (IMV)

drains the left third of the colon and upper colon and joins the splenic vein

23

inferior vena cava (IVC)

largest venous abdominal vessel that conveys blood from the body below the diaphragm to the right atrium of the heart

24

left gastric artery (LGA)

arises from the celiac axis to supply the stomach and lower third of the esophagus

25

left hepatic artery (LHA)

small branch supplying the caudate and left lobes of the liver

26

left renal artery (LRA)

arises from the posterolateral wall of the aorta directly into the hilus of the kidney

27

left renal vein (LRV)

leaves the renal hilum and travels anterior to the aorta and posterior to the superior mesenteric artery to enter the lateral wall of the inferior vena cava

28

Marfan’s syndrome

hereditary disorder of connective tissue, bones, muscles, ligaments, and skeletal structures

29

nonresistive

vessels that have a high diastolic component and supply organs that need constant perfusion (i.e., internal carotid artery, hepatic artery, and renal artery)

30

portal vein (PV)

formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein near the porta hepatis of the liver

31

portal venous hypertension

caused by increased resistance to venous flow through the liver; sonographic findings include dilation of the portal and splenic and mesenteric veins, reversal of portal venous blood flow, and the development of collateral vessels

32

pseudoaneurysm

pulsatile hematoma that results from leakage of blood into soft tissues abutting the punctured artery with fibrous encapsulation and failure of the vessel wall to heal

33

resistive

vessels that have little or reversed flow in diastole and that supply organs that do not need a constant blood supply (e.g., external carotid artery, brachial arteries)

34

resistive index

peak systole minus peak diastole divided by peak systole (S  D/S = RI); an RI of 0.7 or less indicates good perfusion; an RI of 0.7 or higher indicates decreased perfusion

35

right gastric artery (RGA)

supplies the stomach

36

right hepatic artery (RHA)

supplies the gallbladder via the cystic artery

37

right renal artery (RRA)

arises from the posterolateral wall of the aorta and travels posterior to the inferior vena cava to supply the kidney

38

right renal vein (RRV)

leaves the renal hilum to enter the lateral wall of the inferior vena cava

39

saccular aneurysm

localized dilation of the vessel

40

spectral broadening

change in spectral width that increases with flow disturbance

41

splenic artery (SA)

one of the three vessels that arise from the celiac axis to supply the spleen, pancreas, stomach, and greater omentum

42

splenic vein (SV)

drains the spleen; travels horizontally across the abdomen (posterior to the pancreas) to join the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein

43

superior mesenteric artery (SMA)

arises inferior to the celiac axis to supply the proximal half of the colon and the small intestine

44

superior mesenteric vein (SMV)

drains the proximal half of the colon and small intestine; travels vertically (anterior to the inferior vena cava) to join the splenic vein to form the portal veins

45

TIPS

transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

46

true aneurysm

permanent dilation of an artery that forms when tensile strength of the arterial wall decreases

47

tunica adventitia

outer layer of the vascular system; contains the vasa vasorum

48

tunica intima

inner layer of the vascular system

49

tunica media

middle layer of the vascular system; veins have thinner tunica media than arteries

50

vasa vasorum

tiny arteries and veins that supply the walls of blood vessels

51

veins

collapsible vascular structures that carry blood back to the heart