Chapter 07: Anatomic and Physiologic Relationships within the Abdominal Cavity

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1

anterior pararenal space

located between the anterior surface of the renal fascia and the posterior area of the peritoneum

2

ascites

accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

3

diaphragm

broad muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and forms the floor of the thoracic cavity

4

epiploic foramen

opening to the lesser sac

5

falciform ligament

attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and the undersurface of the diaphragm

6

gastrosplenic ligament

ligament between the stomach and the spleen; helps support stomach and spleen

7

greater omentum

double fold of the peritoneum attached to the duodenum, stomach, and large intestine; helps support the greater curve of the stomach; known as the fatty apron

8

greater sac

primary compartment of the peritoneal cavity; extends across the anterior abdomen from the diaphragm to the pelvis

9

homeostasis

maintenance of normal body physiology

10

inguinal ligament

ligament between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle

11

intertubercular plane

lowest horizontal imaginary line that joins the tubercles on the iliac crests to help divide the abdominopelvic cavity into nine regions

12

lateral arcuate ligament

thickened upper margin of the fascia covering the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum muscle

13

left crus of the diaphragm

arises from the sides of the bodies of the first two lumbar vertebrae

14

lesser omentum

membranous extension of the peritoneum that suspends the stomach and duodenum from the liver; helps to support the lesser curvature of the stomach

15

lesser sac

peritoneal pouch located behind the lesser omentum and stomach

16

lienorenal ligament

ligament between the spleen and kidney

17

ligamentum teres

termination of the falciform ligament; seen in the left lobe of the liver

18

linea alba

fibrous band of tissue that stretches from the xiphoid to the symphysis pubis

19

linea semilunaris

slightly curved line on the ventral abdominal wall that marks the lateral border of the rectus abdominis; visible as a shallow groove when that muscle is tensed

20

medial arcuate ligament

thickened upper margin of the fascia covering the anterior surface of the psoas muscle

21

mesothelium

single layer of cells that forms the peritoneum

22

metabolism

physical and chemical changes that occur within the body

23

Morison’s pouch

right posterior subhepatic space located anterior to the kidney and inferior to the liver where fluid may accumulate

24

parietal peritoneum

layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal wall

25

pelvic cavity

lower portion of the abdominopelvic cavity that contains part of the large intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs

26

perirenal space

located directly around the kidney; completely enclosed by renal fascia

27

peritoneal cavity

potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneal layers

28

peritoneal recess

slitlike spaces near the liver; space where fluid may accumulate

29

posterior pararenal space

found between the posterior renal fascia and the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall

30

rectouterine pouch

area in the pelvic cavity between the rectum and the uterus where free fluid may accumulate

31

rectus abdominis muscle

muscle of the anterior abdominal wall

32

right crus of the diaphragm

arises from the sides of the bodies of the first three lumbar vertebrae

33

scrotal cavity

in the male, a small outpocket of the pelvic cavity containing the testes

34

subcostal plane

the upper horizontal imaginary line that joins the lowest point of the costal margin on each side of the body to help divide the abdominopelvic cavity into nine regions

35

superficial inguinal ring

triangular opening in the external oblique aponeurosis

36

transpyloric plane

horizontal plane that passes through the pylorus, the duodenal junction, the neck of the pancreas, and the hilum of the kidneys

37

vesicouterine pouch

pouch formed by the deflection of the peritoneum from the bladder to the uterus

38

viscera

the internal organs

39

visceral peritoneum

layer of peritoneum that covers the abdominal organs

40

vital signs

medical measurements used to ascertain how the body is functioning