Module 3 - Musculoskeletal disorders Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 9 years ago by bluebells
1,055 views
updated 9 years ago by bluebells
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

"A 65-year-old female is admitted to hospital with a pathologic, compound, oblique fracture of the femur. Which of the following statements best describes this type of fracture?"

The fracture line is diagonal to the shaft of the bone.

2

"A six-year-old male presents with fever, pain, swelling and warmth. Tests reveal osteomyelitis and development of an involucrum. Treatment should include:"

surgical debridement and antibiotics;

3

A 51-year-old male experiences severe acute gouty arthritis. Which of the following is the most common trigger for the symptoms?

Trauma, drugs or alcohol.

4

Which of the following hospital patients is at the highest risk for developing myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis)?

Admitted to the hospital for hip surgery and has had problems with anaesthesia in the past.

5

Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterised by:

"diffuse pain, fatigue and point tenderness;"

6

An isolated muscle is believed to be a type 1 fibre. Which of the following should be observed upon stimulation?

Slow contraction speed.

7

An isolated muscle is believed to be a type 2 fibre. Which of the following should be observed upon stimulation?

Fast contraction speed.

8

A 34-year-old female was recently diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. Physical examination revealed that inflammation started in the:

synovial membrane;

9

Which of the following structures is the contractile unit of a muscle cell?

Myofibril

10

The elbow joint is an example of:

diarthrosis

11

Diarthroses

freely moveable joint

12

Synarthroses

immovable joint

13

Amphiarthroses

Slightly moveable joint

14

Which of these structures are not present in compact bone?

Trabeculae

15

"The internal structure of bone is maintained by remodelling, a three-phase process in which existing bone is resorbed and new bone is laid down to replace it. Resorption is carried out by bone cells called:"

osetoclasts

16

"The internal structure of bone is maintained by remodelling, a three-phase process in which existing bone is resorbed and new bone is laid down to replace it. Bone building is carried out by bone cells called:"

osteoblasts

17

A 70-year-old female presents with a hip fracture. She is diagnosed with osteoporosis. One factor that most likely contributed to her condition is:

decreased oestrogen levels.

18

A 21-year-old female presents with low back pain and stiffness that is alleviated by physical activity. She was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis. Which of the following joints would be most affected?

Vertebral and sacroiliac

19

A patient will begin taking hydroxychloroquine for rheumatoid arthritis. The patient is currently taking high-dose NSAIDs and methotrexate. What will the nurse teach the patient?

That an eye exam is necessary at the beginning of therapy with this drug.

20

A patient with gout who has increasingly frequent acute gouty attacks will begin receiving allopurinol and colchicine. The nurse will include which statement when teaching the patient about this drug regimen?

You will take both drugs initially and then stop taking the colchicine.

21

"Although _____ is similar to osteomalacia, it occurs in growing bones of children."

Rickets

22

A 36-year-old male complains of pain and weakness in the elbow. He reports that he is a warehouse worker and lifts boxes daily. MRI reveals inflammation of the tendon where it attaches to bone. This condition is called:

epicondylitis.

23

A patient who has developed postmenopausal osteoporosis will begin taking alendronate. The nurse will teach this patient to take the drug:

while sitting upright with plenty of water;

24

The major effect of aging on the skeletal system is

loss of bone mass.

25

With normal weight bearing what type of fracture can occur in an abnormal bone.

Insufficiency fracture.

26

Myoglobinuria (rhabdomyelosis) can be a serious life threatening complication of

severe muscle trauma.

27

Fibromyalgia is

a chronic musculoskeltal syndrome characterised by diffuse pain and tender points.

28

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is

one of the most common osteochondroses.

29

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is characterised by

epiphyseal necrosis or degeneration of the head of the femur.

30

Muscle fibres contain

bundles of myofibrils

31

Myofibrils are arranged in

parallel along the longnitudinal axis of the muscle fibre.

32

Osteomalacia is

a metabolic bone disease.

33

Osteomalacia is characterised by

inadequate bone mineralisation.

34

Osteoarthritis is a common aged related disorder of

the synovial joints.

35

Osteoarthritis primary defect is a

loss of articular cartilage.

36

Rheumatoid arthritis is

an inflammatory joint disorder (Auto immune disease).

37

Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by the destruction of

synovial membrane, articular cartilage, joint capsule, ligaments and tendons.

38

Bisphophonates undergo incorporation into bone by

inhibiting bone resorption by decreasing osteoclast activity.

39

Rhabdomyolysis is

where damaged muscle fibers break down and release myoglobin.

40

The most dangerous electrolyte imbalance associated with rhabdomyolysis is

hyperkalemia

41

The classic clinical manisfestation of rhabdomyolysis is

profound muscle weakness with pain

42

The key characteristic of excessive myoglobin is

dark, reddish brown urine.

43

Treatment for rhabdomyolysis is

IV crystalloid solutions

44

Sodium bicarbonate affects rhabdomyolysis by

rendering myoglobin insoluble.

45

Compartment syndrome is

an increase in compartment contents or compression of the compartment increases the pressure.

46

The most common area that compartment syndrome is found

lower legs

47

Most common cause of compartment syndrome is

extremity fracture.

48

What is FES

Fat embolism syndrome

49

Fat embolism syndrome is

due to a long bone fracture where a drop of fat has traveled to lungs or other organs following fracture.

50

Osteoporosis

is where there is more bone absorbed by the body than what is being formed. Higher risk in women as menopause accelerates bone loss.

51

Risk factors for osteoporosis

insufficient calcium intake

lack of weight bearing exercise

smoking

alcohol

post menopausal

female

low body weight and short in stature.

too much phosphate

use of glucocorticoids and not enough sun exposure.

52

Drug of choise for osteoporosis

alendronate 5 mg once daily

53

Strain

tear or injury to the tendon

54

Sprain

tear or injury to the ligament

55

Avulsion

Complete separation of a tendon or ligament from its bony attachment site.

56

Tendon attaches

bone to muscle

57

Ligament attaches

bone to bone

58

Tendinitis

inflammation of the tendon

59

Tendinosis

painful degradation of the collagen fibres

60

Bursitis

Inflammation of the bursa

61

Epicondylitis

inflammation of a tendon where it attaches to the bone

62

Teriparatide

drug that increases bone formation

63

Oligoarthritis

less than three joints affected

64

Polyarthritis

5 or more joints affected

65

Stills disease

has a severe systemic onset

66

What are the distinct modes of onset for juvenile arthritis?

Oligoarthritis

Polyarthritis

Stills disease

67

NSAIDs

Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs

68

DMARDS

disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (methotrexate, sulfasalazine)

69

Glucocorticoids

adrenal corticosteroids

70

Ankylosing spondylitis

chronic inflammatory joint disease characterised by stiffening and fusion of the spine and sacroiliac joints.

71

Methotrexate

DMARD takes 3 - 6 week to take effect can be hepatotoxic, taken once a week.

72

Sulfasalazine

Anti inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions, slows progression of joint deterioration and has GI side effects.

73

Allopurinol

reduces uric acid production (inhibits uric acid formation)

74

Probenecid

increases uric acid excretion

75

Colchicine

anti inflammatory properties does not reduce uric acid formation or excretion.

76

Muscular dystrophies

Group of disorders that cause degeneration of skeletal muscle fibres.

77

Duchennes muscular dystrophy

most common

caused by mutation in the gene located on the short arm of the x chromosome.

progressive appears by approximately 3 years of age.

no cure